Elam Lynds (1825–1830) Robert Wiltse (1830–1834) David L. Seymour (1834–1843) William H. Peck (1843–1845) Hiram P. Rowell (1845–1848) Chauncey Smith (1848–1849) Edward L. Potter (January, 1849) Alfred R. Booth (July, 1849) Munson I. Lockwood (1850–1855) C. A. Batterman (1855–1856) William Beardsley (1856–1862) Gaylord B. Hubbell (1862–1864) Thomas E. Sutton (1864–1865) Stephen H. Johnson (1865–1868) David P. Forrest (1868–1869) Henry C. Nelson (1869–1870) E. M. Russell (1870–1872) Henry C. Nelson (1872–1873) Gaylord B. Hubbell (1873–1874) James Williamson (September 1874) Alfred Walker (October 1874) George R. Youngs (1876–1877) Charles Davis (February 1877) B. S. W. Clark (March 1877) Charles Davis (1877–1880) Augustus A. Brush (1880–1891) W.R. Brown (1891–1893) Charles F. Durston (1893–1894) Omar V. Sage (1894–1899) Addison Johnson (1899–1907) Jesse D. Frost (1907–1911) John S. Kennedy (1911–1913) James Connaughton* (June 1913) James M. Clancy (1913–1914) Thomas McCormick (June 1914) George Weed* (October 1914) Thomas M. Osborne (1914–1915) George W. Kirchwey (1915) Thomas M. Osborne (July 1916) Calvin Derrick (October 1916) William H. Moyer (1916–1919) Edward V. Brophy (April 1919) Daniel J. Grant* (1919–1920) Lewis E. Lawes (1920–1941) Robert J. Kirby (1941–1944) William F. Snyder (1944–1950) Wilfred L. Denno (1950–1967) John T. Deegan (1967–1969) James L. Casscles (1969–1972) Theodore Schubin (1972–1975) Joseph Higgins* (July 1975) Harold Butler (October 1975) William G. Gard (1975–1977) Walter Fogg* (August 1977) Stephen Dalsheim (1977–1980) Wilson E.J. Walters (1980–1983) James E. Sullivan (1983–1988) John P. Keane (1988–1993) Tommy Mottola (1994-1997) Charles Greiner (1997–2000) Brian S. Fischer (2000–2007) Louis Marshall (2007–2009) Phillip Heath (2009–2012) Michael Capra (2012–present) * = Acting
The name "Sing Sing" was derived from the Sintsink native American tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a period museum.
By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near (and thus named after) a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words sinck sinck which translates to 'stone upon stone'. The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre (0.53 km2) site, and the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; "temporary barracks, a cook house, carpenter and blacksmith's shops" were rushed to completion.
When it was opened in 1826, By October 1828 Sing Sing was completed. It was considered a model prison because it turned a profit for the state. Lynds employed the Auburn system, which imposed absolute silence on the prisoners; the system was enforced by whipping and other punishments. It was John Luckey, the Prison Chaplain around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed. Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles. His religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. In 1844, the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformers interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Farnham was able to obtain the job largely on the recommendation of these reformers. Farnham overturned the strictly silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past. She included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include moral teachings from secular literature.
Warden T. M. Osborne
Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing was brief but dramatic. Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail.
Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation, even succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates.
Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes. He was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, and remained for 21 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden. Lawes retired in 1941 and died six years later.
In 1943, the old cell block was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort.
In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility.
Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, employs about 1,000 people, and hosts 5,000 visitors per month. The original 1825 cell block is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn it into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison to take advantage of its valuable real estate.
In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if its application was inconsistent and arbitrary. This led to a temporary de facto nationwide moratorium (executions resumed in other states in 1977), but the chair still remained. In the early-1970s, the electric chair was moved to Green Haven Correctional Facility in working condition, but was never used again.
In 1996, Katherine Vockins founded Rehabilitation Through the Arts (RTA) at Sing Sing. RTA works in collaboration with theater professionals to provide prisoners with a curriculum of year-round theater-related workshops. The RTA program has put on a number of plays at Sing Sing open to prisoners and community guests. The program has shown that the use of dramatic techniques leads to significant improvements in the cognitive behavior of the program's participants inside prison and a reduction in recidivism once paroled. The impact of RTA on social and institutional behavior was formally evaluated by John Jay College for Criminal Justice, in collaboration with the NY State Department of Corrections. Led by Dr. Lorraine Moller, Professor of Speech and Drama at John Jay, the study found that RTA had a positive impact on notable RTA prisoner Pavle Stanimirovic who first participated in the program, showing that "the longer the inmate was in the program, the fewer violations he committed." The RTA program currently operates at five other New York state prisons.
The organization, Hudson Link for Higher Education in Prison, provides college courses to incarcerated people to help reduce recidivism and poverty and strengthen families and communities. In 1998, as part of the get-tough-on-crime campaign, state and federal funding for college programs inside prison was stopped. Understanding the positive effects of education in the transformation and rehabilitation of incarcerated people, inmates at Sing Sing Correctional Facility reached out to religious and academic volunteers to develop a college degree-granting program. Under Anne Reissner, Hudson Link for Higher Education in Prison was founded to restore college education at Sing Sing through private funding.
In 1931, new prison reforms gave Sing Sing State Penitentiary prisoners permission to partake in recreation opportunities. The baseball and football teams, and the vaudeville presentations and concerts, were funded through revenue from paid attendance. Tim Mara, the owner of the New York Giants, sponsored the Sing Sing Black Sheep, Sing Sing's football team. Mara provided equipment and uniforms and players to tutor them in fundamentals. He helped coach them the first season. Known as the Black Sheep, they were also sometimes called the Zebras. All games were "home" games, played at Lawes Stadium, named for Warden Lewis E. Lawes. In 1935, the starting quarterback and two other starters escaped the morning before a game.
Alabama Pitts was their starting QB and star for the first four seasons, but then finished his sentence. Upon release, Alabama Pitts played for the Philadelphia Eagles in 1935. In 1932, "graduate" Jumbo Morano was signed by the Giants, and played for the Paterson Nighthawks of the Eastern Football League. In 1934, State Commissioner of Correction, Walter N. Thayer banned the advertising of activities at the prison, including football games. On November 19, 1936, a new rule banned ticket sales. No revenues would be derived from show and sports event ticketing. These funds had been paying for disbursements to prisoners' families, especially the kin of those executed, and for equipment and coaches' salaries. With this new edict, the season ended and prisoners were no longer allowed to play football outside Sing Sing.
Plans to turn a portion of Sing Sing into a museum date back to 2002, when local officials sought to turn the old power house into the museum, linked by a tunnel to a retired cell block, at a cost of $5 million. In 2007, the village of Ossining applied for $12.5 million in federal money for the project, at the time expected to cost $14 million. The proposed museum would display the Sing Sing story as it unfolded over time.
Contribution to American English
The expression "up the river" to describe someone in prison or heading to prison derives from the practice of sentencing people convicted in New York City to serve their terms in Sing Sing. The prison is literally up the Hudson River from the city. The slang expression dates from 1891.
View from afar, 1857 engraving
The prison and workshops, c.1863–1885
A cell in the older facility
Sing Sing after the 1913 fire
The prison, c.1913
Old cell block, c.1938
Guard tower in 2014. Hudson River and Tappan Zee Bridge in the background.
Frank Abbandando: New York City contract killer who committed many murders as part of the infamous Murder, Inc. gang.
George Appo: 19th-century pickpocket and con artist. His biographer described Sing Sing in the latter part of the 19th century as largely corrupt. The biographer also outlines the stove manufacturing operation where inmates were forced to labor.
Louis Buchalter: American mobster and head of Murder, Inc.. On September 28, 1917, Buchalter was sentenced in New York to 18 months in state prison at Sing Sing on a grand larceny conviction. After a transfer to Auburn Prison in Auburn, New York, Buchalter was released on January 27, 1919. On January 22, 1920, Buchalter returned to Sing Sing on a 30 month sentence for attempted burglary. He was released on March 16, 1922..
Paul Geidel: formerly the longest-serving prison inmate in the United States, whose sentence ended with his parole. After being convicted of second-degree murder in 1911, aged 17, Geidel served 68 years and 296 days in various New York state prisons. He was released on May 7, 1980, at the age of 86.
^Hub System: Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2007. State of New York, Department of Correctional Services. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-03-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^Lewis, O.F. (2005). The development of American prisons and prison customs, 1776-1845: with special reference to early institutions in the State of New York. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. p. 109. ISBN978-1-4179-6402-4. Google Books
^McGrath, Morris, James (2003). The Rose Man of Sing Sing: a true tale of life, murder, and redemption in the age of yellow journalism. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN9780823238590. OCLC647876393.