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Siangic languages

Siangic
Koro-Holon
Geographic
distribution
Arunachal Pradesh
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan?
Subdivisions
Glottologkoro1317[1]

The Siangic languages (or Koro-Holon languages[2]) are a small family of possibly Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. The Siangic languages consist of Koro and Milang.

Classification

Milang, which has been extensively influenced by Padam (a Tani language), is alternatively classified as a divergent Tani language (Post & Blench 2011). Koro has undergone influence from Hruso (Post & Blench 2011). However, Milang and Koro do not belong to either the Tani or Hrusish groups of languages.

It is unclear whether the Siangic is a branch of Sino-Tibetan or an independent language family that has undergone extensive Sino-Tibetan influence. Post & Blench (2011) note that Siangic has a substratum of unknown origin, and consider Siangic to be an independent language family. Anderson (2014)[2], who refers to Siangic as Koro-Holon instead, considers Siangic (Koro-Holon) to be a branch of Sino-Tibetan rather than an independent language family.

Greater Siangic

Greater Siangic
(proposed)
Geographic
distribution
Arunachal Pradesh
Linguistic classificationpossibly Sino-Tibetan or an independent family
Subdivisions
Glottologmacr1268[3]
mish1241[4]

Roger Blench (2014) proposes a Greater Siangic family that includes the Digaro languages (Idu Mishmi and Taraon) and Pre-Tani, the hypothetical substrate language branch of Tani before it became relexified by Sino-Tibetan.

Reconstruction

Post & Blench (2011)

The following Proto-Siangic forms reconstructed by Mark Post & Roger Blench (2011:8-9) do not have lexical parallels with Proto-Tani, and are unique to the Siangic branch.

Gloss Proto-Siangic Koro Milang
(negator suffix) *-ŋa -ŋa -ŋə
(desiderative suffix) *-mi -mi -mi
give *ram ram
know *fu fu hu
ant *paŋ pa-su paŋ-kər
chicken *co co-le a-cu
stone *bu u-bu da-bu
ear *raɲ(u?) ra-ɲu
mouth *caŋ sa-pu caŋ-ci
buttocks *kɨ-ruŋ kɨɻ ki-ruŋ
pus *a-nɨ i-ni a-nɨ
day *nə me-ne a-nə
sun *mə me-ne mə-ruŋ[5]
seven *roŋ(al) raŋal
eight *ra-ljaŋ rã-la rajəŋ
ten *faŋ fã-lã haŋ-tak
axe *rak-pu rak-pa ra-pu
grandfather *abo- + ‘old man’ abo-murzi a-bə (bu-ku ~ ma-zaŋ)
grandmother *adze- + ‘old woman’ aje-mɨsiŋ a-dzi (dzi-ku)
sand *bu-pi bu-pi bu-pi
yesterday *ba-nə ba-n(e) ba-nə
have (be there) *kjo ko cu
bamboo *fu fu a-hu
egg *cu-ci cu-ci ci-ci
what *hVgV-nV (h)igi-na ha-ga-nu
cultivated field *p(j?)u pu a-pu
rice paddy *kɨ ki-raka du-kɨ
green *ja-caŋ jã-ca jə-caŋ
small *u(-ŋa?) u-ŋa u-lee
sister, older *a-Co o-fo a-u
root *raŋ ne-raŋ ta-pɨr[6]
ripe *ŋin i-ŋi man[7]
tell *pu pu-s(u) po-lu

Modi (2013)

Modi (2013)[8] lists the following Proto-Siangic forms, along with forms for Milang, Koro, Idu, Taraon, and Proto-Tani. Additional cognate sets that were not included in Post & Blench (2011) include black, house, salt, fat, and today.

Gloss Proto-Siangic Koro Milang Taraon Idu Proto-Tani
today *V-ne se-ne ɨ-nə a tia-n̥n e tia-ɲi *si-lo
seven *roŋ(al) ra-ŋal weŋ, ɨ-eŋ i-ɦoŋ *kV-nV(t), *kV-nɨt
ear *raɲ(u?) ra-ɲu kru-naŋ akru-na, ako-na *ɲa(-ruŋ), *ɲo
give *ram ram haŋ haŋ *bi
axe *rak-pu rak-pa ra-pu pa e-pa *əgɨŋ
eight *ra-ljaŋ rãla ra-jɛŋ liɨm i-lioŋ *pri-ɲi
salt *pu plo ta-pu pla pra *lo
ant *paŋ pa-su paŋ-kər paː-chai pa-si *ruk
day *nə me-ne a-nə kɨ-n i-ni *lo
house *Noŋ ŋɨn a-ɲuk *kum
sun *mə me-ne mə-ruŋ rɨn rɨŋ, rɨn *doŋ-ɲi
black *ma ma je-gjaŋ ma ma
white *ljo lap(l)õ je-cci lio lio *pun, *puŋ
rice *kje ki-raka du-kɨ kie ke *am-bwn
bamboo *fu fu ahu hui a bra li *ɦə(ŋ)
know *fu fu hu ka-sa ka-sa *ken
fat *fo fõ, u-fu a-hu ta-so so *fu
ten *faŋ fã-lã haŋ-tak xa-lɨŋ hoŋ-ɦoŋ *cam, *(r)jiŋ
egg *cu-ci cuci cici a(ː)-tei meto cu *pɨ
fowl/chicken *co co-le a-cu tiu me-to *rok
mouth *caŋ sa-pu caŋ-ci tʰɨ-rɨm-bram, thɨ-rɨn tʰɨ-ram-bram, eko-be *gam (*nap)
sand *bu-pi bu-pi sa-pi ta-pi a-pi sulli (Padam)
yesterday *ba-nə ba-ne ba-nə bɨ-liɨŋ bɨ-ɲi *mə-lo

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Koro–Holon". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2014. On the classification of the Hruso (Aka) language. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Macro-Tani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Digarish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Means ‘sun’; also, Milang has a-mə ‘sunlight’.
  6. ^ From Proto-Tani *pɨr
  7. ^ From Proto-Tani *min
  8. ^ Modi, Yankee. 2013. The nearest relatives of the Tani group. Paper presented at the 19th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Canberra, Australia.

Bibliography