Total population 12,300 (2000) Regions with significant populations United States ( Idaho, California, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Wyoming) Languages Shoshone,  English Religion Native American Church, Sun Dance, traditional tribal religion,  Christianity, Ghost Dance Related ethnic groups Timbisha and Comanche
Shoshone or Shoshoni ( or ( ) listen ) are a ( ) listen Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions:
They traditionally speak the
Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers.
Their peoples have become members of
federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement, often colocated with the Northern Paiute people of the Great Basin.
The name "Shoshone" comes from
Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses. Some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."
Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805.
Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today. It belongs to the  Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming.
The largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers (including children) live on the federally recognized
Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho; and Goshute Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University also offers Shoshoni-language classes.
The Shoshone are a
Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700.
As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by
Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho (where the city Pocatello was named for him). As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, and attacked immigrants.
The warfare resulted in the
Bear River Massacre (1863), when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces.
American Civil War travelers continued to migrate westward along the Westward Expansion Trails. When the Shoshone, along with the Utes participated in attacks on the mail route that ran west out of Fort Laramie, the mail route had to be relocated south of the trail through Wyoming.
Allied with the
Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868. They fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U.S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne.
In 1879 a band of approximately 300
Eastern Shoshone (known as " Sheepeaters") became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War. It was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named
Mike Daggett, also known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers formed a  posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26, 1911 and killed eight. They lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle. The posse captured three children and a woman.
A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children (believed to be Shoshone Mike and his family, according to contemporary accounts) to the
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe.
In 2008 the
Northwestern Band of the Shoshone Nation acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land. They wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.
In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered
infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory.
In 1937 the
Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 3,650 Northern Shoshone and 1,201 Western Shoshone. As of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone.
Shoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources. These include:
Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Lemhi, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley    Doyahinee', Mountain people
 Kammedeka, Kammitikka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake
 Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters, possibly synonymous with Kammitikka
Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters (Mountain Sheep Eaters), Sawtooth Range, Idaho   Yahandeka, Yakandika, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise, Payette, and Wiser Rivers  
Cedar Valley Goshute
Deep Creek Goshute
Rush Valley Goshute
Skull Valley Goshute, Wipayutta, Weber Ute
 Tooele Valley Goshute
Trout Creek Goshute  Kuyatikka, Kuyudikka, Bitterroot Eaters, Halleck, Mary's River, Clover Valley, Smith Creek Valley, Nevada
 Mahaguadüka, Mentzelia Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada
 Painkwitikka, Penkwitikka, Fish Eaters, Cache Valley, Idaho and Utah
 Pasiatikka, Redtop Grass Eaters, Deep Creek Gosiute, Deep Creek Valley, Antelope Valley
 Tipatikka, Pinenut Eaters, northernmost band
 Tsaiduka, Tule Eaters, Railroad Valley, Nevada
 Tsogwiyuyugi, Elko, Nevada
 Waitikka, Ricegrass Eaters, Ione Valley, Nevada
 Watatikka, Ryegrass Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada
 Wiyimpihtikka, Buffalo Berry Eaters 
Reservations and Indian colonies
, Wyoming Native American reservation.
(at left) extends his right arm." Some of the Shoshones are dancing as the soldiers look on, 1892
Battle Mountain Reservation, Lander County, Nevada. Current reservation population is 165 and total tribal enrollment is 516.
Big Pine Reservation, central Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone
Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony, northern Owens Valley, Inyo County, California;
Death Valley Indian Community, Furnace Creek, Death Valley National Park, California; Timbisha Shoshone
Duck Valley Indian Reservation, southern Idaho/northern Nevada, (Western) Shoshone-Paiute Tribes
Duckwater Indian Reservation, located in Duckwater, Nevada, approximately 75 miles (121 km) from Ely.
Elko Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada
Ely Shoshone Indian Reservation in Ely, Nevada, 111 acres (0.45 km²), 500 members
Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservation near Fallon, Nevada, 8,200 acres (33 km²), 991 members, Western Shoshone and Paiute
Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres (2,201 km²) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshone with the Bannock Indians, a Paiute band with which they have merged
Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe
Goshute Indian Reservation, 111,000 acres (449 km²) in Nevada and Utah, Western Shoshone
Lemhi Indian Reservation (1875–1907) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshone, removed to Fort Hall Reservation
Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation, lower Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone
Northwestern Shoshone Indian Reservation, Utah, Northwestern Band of Shoshone Nation of Utah (Washakie) 
Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada, 1988 acres (8 km²), total 481 members of Shoshone, Paiute, and Washoe bands
Skull Valley Indian Reservation, 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Utah, Western Shoshone
South Fork Odgers Ranch Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada
Wells Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada Wind River Reservation, population 2,650 Eastern Shoshone, 2,268,008 acres (9,178 km²) of reservation in Wyoming are shared with the Northern Arapaho
Notable Shoshone people
^ a b c d
"Shoshoni." Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 Oct 2013.
^ a b c d e f g h Loether, Christopher.
"Shoshones." Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Retrieved 20 Oct 2013.
Hogland, Alison K. Army Architecture in the West: Forts Laramie, Bridger and D.A. Russell, 1849–1912. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 18.
America's Last Indian Battle Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
"Policeman Edward Hogle". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
NMNH – Repatriation Office – Reports – Great Basin – Nevada
"Tribe remembers nation's largest massacre", Indian Country Times, 10 Mar 2008, accessed 6 Mar 2010
^ a b c Shimkin 335
^ a b c d e f g Murphy and Murphy 306
^ a b c Murphy and Murphy 287
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas, Pendleton, and Cappannari 280–283
"Northwestern Band of Shoshone Tribal Profile." Archived 2013-04-04 at the Wayback Machine Utah Division of Indian Affairs. Retrieved 23 Dec 2012.
Murphy, Robert A. and Yolanda Murphy. "Northern Shoshone and Bannock." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 284–307. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Shimkin, Demitri B. "Eastern Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 308–335. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Thomas, David H., Lorann S.A. Pendleton, and Stephen C. Cappannari. "Western Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 262–283. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3.
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