|Other names||Shanishvara, Chhayasutha, Pingala, Kakadhwaja, Konastha, Babhru,Krishna,Roudhraantak, Yam,Sauri,Mand,Pipplayshraya|
Chhaya Maartanda Sambhootam, Tham Namaami Shanaishcharam" and
"Om Sham Shanaishcharaya Namaha"
|Weapon||sceptre, trident, axe|
|Tree||Jammi/ Shami/ Khejri/ or Ghaf tree. Number = Eight (8), Seven (7)|
|Mount||Crow Elephant Pigeon|
|Consort||Manda, Neelima (inside shani or power of shani)|
|Offspring||Gulika/Maandi and Kuligna|
Shani (Sanskrit: शनि, Śani) or Śanaiśchara refers to the planet Saturn, and is one of the nine heavenly objects known as Navagraha in Hindu astrology. Shani is also a male deity in the Puranas, whose iconography consists of a handsome figure carrying a sword or danda (sceptre), and sitting on a crow. He is the God of Justice in Hindu religion and delivers results to all, depending upon their thoughts, speech and deeds (karma). He also signifies spiritual asceticism, penance, discipline and hard work. His consort is goddess Manda.
Shani as a planet appears in various Hindu astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta, the 6th-century Romaka by Latadeva and Pancha Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. These texts present Shani as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets as divine knowledge linked to deities.
The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions, present Shani's motion in the skies, but vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives. The texts slightly disagree in their data, in their measurements of Shani's revolutions, apogee, epicycles, nodal longitudes, orbital inclination, and other parameters. For example, both Khandakhadyaka and Surya Siddhanta of Varaha state that Shani completes 146,564 revolutions on its own axis every 4,320,000 earth years, an Epicycle of Apsis as 60 degrees, and had an apogee (aphelia) of 240 degrees in 499 CE; while another manuscript of Soorya Siddhantha revises the revolutions to 146,568, the apogee to 236 degrees and 37 seconds and the Epicycle to about 49 degrees.
The 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars had estimated the time it took for sidereal revolutions of each planet including Shani, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results:
|Source||Estimated time per sidereal revolution|
|Surya Siddhanta||10,765 days, 18 hours, 33 minutes, 13.6 seconds|
|Siddhanta Shiromani||10,765 days, 19 hours, 33 minutes, 56.5 seconds|
|Ptolemy||10,758 days, 17 hours, 48 minutes, 14.9 seconds|
|20th century calculations||10,759 days, 5 hours, 16 minutes, 32.2 seconds|
Shani is the basis for Shanivara – one of the seven days that make a week in the Hindu calendar. This day corresponds to Saturday – after Saturn – in the Greco-Roman convention for naming the days of the week. The zodiac and naming system of Hindu astrology, including those on Shani as Saturn, likely developed in the centuries after the arrival of Greek astrology with Alexander the Great, their zodiac signs being nearly identical. Consecutively, there is also a possibility that the Greeks adopted the naming convention of the days of the week based on the Indian astrological beliefs, as was being practised in the Indian civilization for time immemorial. 
Shani is a deity in medieval era texts, who is considered inauspicious and is feared for delivering misfortune and loss to those who deserve it. He is also capable of conferring boons and blessings to the worthy, depending upon their karma. In medieval Hindu literature, he is inconsistently referred to as the son of Sun and Chhaya (shadow), or as the son of Balarama and Revati. His alternate names include Ara, Kona and Kroda.. As per the Hindu texts,'Peepal' or fig tree is the abode of Shani (while other texts associate the same tree with Vasudeva).
In 2013, a 20-foot-tall statue of Lord Shani was established at Yerdanur in the mandal of Sangareddy, Medak district, nearly 40 kilometers from Hyderabad city. It was carved from a monolith and weighs about nine tonnes.
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