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The Secure Hash Algorithms are a family of cryptographic hash functions published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), including:
The corresponding standards are FIPS PUB 180 (original SHA), FIPS PUB 180-1 (SHA-1), FIPS PUB 180-2 (SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512). NIST has updated Draft FIPS Publication 202, SHA-3 Standard separate from the Secure Hash Standard (SHS).
In the table below, internal state means the "internal hash sum" after each compression of a data block.
Algorithm and variant | Output size (bits) |
Internal state size (bits) |
Block size (bits) |
Rounds | Operations | Security (in bits) against collision attacks | Capacity against length extension attacks |
Performance on Skylake (median cpb)^{[1]} | First published | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
long messages | 8 bytes | ||||||||||
MD5 (as reference) | 128 | 128 (4 × 32) |
512 | 64 | And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 2^{32}), Or | ≤18 (collisions found)^{[2]} |
0 | 4.99 | 55.00 | 1992 | |
SHA-0 | 160 | 160 (5 × 32) |
512 | 80 | And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 2^{32}), Or | <34 (collisions found) |
0 | ≈ SHA-1 | ≈ SHA-1 | 1993 | |
SHA-1 | <63 (collisions found^{[3]}) |
3.47 | 52.00 | 1995 | |||||||
SHA-2 | SHA-224 SHA-256 |
224 256 |
256 (8 × 32) |
512 | 64 | And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 2^{32}), Or, Shr | 112 128 |
32 0 |
7.62 7.63 |
84.50 85.25 |
2004 2001 |
SHA-384 SHA-512 |
384 512 |
512 (8 × 64) |
1024 | 80 | And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 2^{64}), Or, Shr | 192 256 |
128 (≤ 384) 0 |
5.12 5.06 |
135.75 135.50 |
2001 | |
SHA-512/224 SHA-512/256 |
224 256 |
112 128 |
288 256 |
≈ SHA-384 | ≈ SHA-384 | 2012 | |||||
SHA-3 | SHA3-224 SHA3-256 SHA3-384 SHA3-512 |
224 256 384 512 |
1600 (5 × 5 × 64) |
1152 1088 832 576 |
24^{[4]} | And, Xor, Rot, Not | 112 128 192 256 |
448 512 768 1024 |
8.12 8.59 11.06 15.88 |
154.25 155.50 164.00 164.00 |
2015 |
SHAKE128 SHAKE256 |
d (arbitrary) d (arbitrary) |
1344 1088 |
min(d/2, 128) min(d/2, 256) |
256 512 |
7.08 8.59 |
155.25 155.50 |
All SHA-family algorithms, as FIPS-approved security functions, are subject to official validation by the CMVP, a joint program (Cryptographic Module Validation Program) run by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Canadian Communications Security Establishment (CSE).