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Sealdah

Sealdah
Neighbourhood in Kolkata (Calcutta)
Coordinates: 22°33′58″N 88°22′07″E / 22.566235°N 88.368611°E / 22.566235; 88.368611
Country  India
State West Bengal
City Kolkata
District Kolkata
Municipal Corporation Kolkata Municipal Corporation
KMC ward 49
Population
 • Total For population see linked KMC ward page
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area code(s) +91 33
Lok Sabha constituency Kolkata Uttar
Vidhan Sabha constituency Chowranghee

Sealdah (Bengali:শিয়ালদহ) (perhaps more appropriately Shealdah) is a neighbourhood of central Kolkata in Kolkata district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Etymology

Jackals (sheal in Bengali) howled around Sealdah. Antiquarians identify it as Shrigaldwipa (Jackal Island). Nearby Beliaghata was a port in the Salt Lakes.[1]

History

The East India Company obtained from the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar, in 1717, the right to rent from 38 villages surrounding their settlement. Of these 5 lay across the Hooghly in what is now Howrah district. The remaining 33 villages were on the Calcutta side. After the fall of Siraj-ud-daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, it purchased these villages in 1758 from Mir Jafar, and reorganised them. These villages were known en-bloc as Dihi Panchannagram and Shealdah was one of them.[2][3][1]

Sealdah was described in 1757 as a "narrow causeway, several feet above the level of the country, leading from the east".[4]

In 1756, when Siraj-ud-daulah attacked the English at Calcutta, a major part of his troops and artillery crossed the Maratha Ditch at Sealdah.[5]There was hard fighing here with 39 English soldiers and 18 Indian sepoys killed on the spot. The English dragged their guns through the rice fields.[1]

Baithakkana was a resting place, where merchants formed and dispersed their caravans, sheltered by an old banyan tree (called a peepul tree by Cotton). Job Charnock is said to have chosen the site of Kolkata for a city, in consequence of the pleasure he found in sitting and smoking under the shade of a large tree.[4]

A present-day road stretching from Bepin Behari Ganguly Street to Mahatma Gandhi Road is called Baithakkhana Road,[6] as well as the market along the road at the southern (Bow Bazar / B. B. Ganguly) end is called Baithakkhana Bazar.

The Maratha Ditch was dug in 1742 and it was partly filled up in 1799 to create the Circular Road (now Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road). [1]The eighty-foot-wide Harrison Road (now Mahatma Gandhi Road), was built in 1889-1892.[7]

The first list of thanas (police stations) in Calcutta was made in 1765, and Muchipara was not there in the list. Muchipara, named after muchis (cobblers and leather workers), possibly shot in to prominence in the early 19th century. In 1888, one of the 25 newly organized police section houses was located in Muchipara.[1]

The East Bengal Railway opened its track from Calcutta to Kushtia in 1862. At the Calcutta end there was a tin-roofed station room. Sealdah railway station had a proper station building in 1869.[8]The present Sealdah-Ranaghat line was a part of the Sealdah-Kushtia line and was subsequently extended to Goalundo Ghat.[9]

Geography

Police district

Muchipara police station is part of the Central division of Kolkata Police. Located at 6, Santosh Mitra Square, Kolkata-700012, it has jurisdiction over the police district which is bordered on the north by Surya Sen Street; on the east by Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road from opposite its junction with Surya Sen Street to its junction with Beliaghata Road thence by Lower Circular Road from its junction with Beliaghata Road to opposite its junction with Dharmatala Street; on the south by Dharmatala Street from its junction with Lower Circular Road to its junction with Nirmal Chandra Street; and on the west by College Street from its junction with Surya Sen Street to its junction with Bepin Behari Ganguli Street, thence by Nirmal Chandra Street to its junction with Dharmatala Street.[10]

Taltala Women police station covers all police districts under the jurisdiction of the Central division, i.e. Bowbazar, Burrabazar, Girish Park, Hare Street, Jorasanko, Muchipara, New Market, Taltala and Posta.[10]

Economy

Daily markets

Sealdah market, along with Hatibagan, Maniktala, Lake Market and Gariahat markets, is amongst the largest markets in Kolkata. Very similar to village weekly hats, Kolkata’s markets thrive in a sprawling and makeshift environment.[11]Sealdah market is an agglomeration of various markets in the area. There is the Sealdah Area market spread for about a kilometre along both sides of Mahatma Gandhi Road from Purabi to Chhabighar cinema halls selling mainly vegetables and fruits. Sealdah Dimer Bazar, in Hayat Khan Lane and Panchu Khansama Lane, is an egg arat. Baitakkhna Market, spread across 2 acres at 15/16 Baithakkhana Road, sells vegetable, fruits, betel leaf, flower, fish, meat, egg, grocery etc.. New Baithakkhana Market (also known as Chhagalkata Fish Market), spread across 5 acres at 155-158, B.B.Ganguli Street, is a fish market. Kolay Market, located near Sealdah station, is the largest wholesale market in Kolkata, handling vegetables and other daily needs. It is open 24/7 and has not closed down even during strikes.[12]Bow Bazar market, stretching from Sealdah crossing to College Street crossing, is virtually an extension of Sealdah market complex.[13]

Baithakkhana is one of the largest paper markets in India. However, the letterpress business, once the largest printing process in the country and the pride of Bengal, has lost out to more modern systems. Some 10-15 letterpress printers are still there in Baithakkhana, struggling hard to retain a foothold in the tough competition.[14]Mahatma Gandhi Road, from Sealdah to College Street, is a big market for wedding and visiting cards.[15]

Transport

Sealdah railway station handles in all around 20 lakh (2 million) passengers daily. A bulk of those using the station, around 12 lakhs, commute daily for work in 917 local trains. The East-West Metro line, now under construction, will have a station at Sealdah and around 5 lakh passengers are likely to use the metro station.[16][17]

Horse-drawn tram – life-size model at City Centre arcade, Kolkata

19th century Kolkata was a city of palanquins and horse-drawn carriages. The tramway was the first attempt at mass transport. The first horse-driven tramcar rolled out on 24 February 1873, running between Armenian Ghat and Sealdah via Bowbazar, as well as Dalhousie Square.[18]

Electric tramcars were introduced in Kolkata in 1902. Tram lines were laid along Harrison Road (now Mahatma Gandhi Road) in 1903, and up to Rajabazar in 1910.[19]

Sealdah hump flyover, constructed in the late 1970s, will have a ramp from the flyover to the station.[20][21]

Education

Mitra Institution (Main)
  • Surendranath College, is an undergraduate college. Founded in 1884, it was initially named Ripon College after Lord Ripon, Viceroy of India. In 1948-49, it was renamed after Sir Surendranath Banerjee, who started it and was associated with this institution for many years. In 1885, it started the department of law, which became an independent college, Ripon Law College, in 1911. It opened an evening section in 1947 and a women’s section in 1948, and both became independent colleges. Affiliated to the University of Calcutta, it offers honours courses in English, Bengali, political science, history, philosophy, Sanskrit, psychology, sociology, journalism & mass communication, physics, chemistry, mathematics, statistics, computer science, economics, botany, zoology, physiology, microbiology, geography, psychology and financial accounting, and general courses in arts, science and commerce.[22][23]
  • Surendranath Law College, initially started in 1885 as law department of Ripon College, it later became Ripon Law College and was renamed in 1948-49 after Sir Surendranath Banerjee.[22][24]
  • Surendranath Evening College, initially started in 1947 as evening section of Ripon College, it was separately affiliated with the University of Calcutta in 1961. It is also affiliated with Netaji Subhas Open University for certain subjects. It offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Hindi, Urdu, history, education, electronic science, physics, mathematics, accountancy and finance, and general courses in arts, science and commerce. It also offers courses in library science and a vocational course in electronic equipment maintenance. It has arrangements for certain post-graduate courses. It caters to the demands of under privileged sections of society in the area and also the working people seeking to enhance their educational qualifications.[22][25][26]
  • Surendranath College for Women was initially started in 1948 as part of Surendranath College. It initially catered to the needs of refugees from East Pakistan but later widened its base. Affiliated with the University of Calcutta, it offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Sanskrit, Urdu, history, geography, philosophy, political science, education, journalism & mass communication, economics and mathematics, and general courses. It offers a course in Communicative English.[22][27]
  • Bangabasi College was founded in 1887 by Acharya Girish Chandra Bose. With the large-scale influx of refugees from East Pakistan, Bangabasi College added morning and evening sections in 1947, both of which later emerged as separate colleges. A college for teaching commerce was started the same year in a separate building. In 1979, Bangabasi College became co-educational with the addition of another commerce section. Affiliated to the University of Calcutta, it offers honours courses in English, Bengali, Sanskrit, political science, history, philosophy, sociology, geography, economics, psychology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, anthropology, botany, zoology, B.Com (Hons) and general courses in arts, science and commerce. It offers a post-graduate course in zoology.[28]
  • Bangabasi Morning College was initially started as part of Bangabasi College in 1947. It is affiliated with the University of Calcutta, and offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Hindi, history, political science, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, zoology, botany, anthropology and accounting and finance, and general courses in arts, science and commerce. It has arrangements for teaching Urdu as a general subject. It offers post-graduate courses under the Directorate of Distance Education of Vidyasagar University in Bengali, English, history, environmental science, applied mathematics, chemistry and M. Com.[28][29]
  • Bangabasi Evening College was initially started as part of Bangabasi College in 1947. It is affiliated with the University of Calcutta, and offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Hindi, Sanskrit, history, political science, philosophy, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, economics, physiology, botany and accountancy. It offers M.Sc. in mathematics as a regular course of the University of Calcutta.[28][30]
  • Acharya Girish Chandra Bose College, was started initially as a part of Bangabasi College in 1947. It was renamed Bangabasi College of Commerce and affiliated with the University of Calcutta in 1964, and in 2004 was further renamed Acharya Girish Chandra Bose College. It offers courses in B.Com. (general and honours), Bengali and Englsih honours and B.A, (general).[31]
  • Loreto Day School at Sealdah, is an English-medium girls only school. It is one of the six Loreto schools in Kolkata. Affiliated with the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education and West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, it has arrangements for teaching from Nursery to Class XII. Established in 1857, it has a ‘free’ block, built in 1932, for the economically deprived local population, inside the gate.[32][33]
  • Mitra Institution (Main) at Baithakkhana is a Bengali-medium higher secondary boys only school established in 1888. Affiliated with the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education and the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, it has arrangement for teaching from class VI to XII.[34][35]

Healthcare

Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College & Hospital (Old Campus)
  • Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital at Sealdah is one of the five government medical colleges and hospitals in Kolkata. The medical college is affiliated with the West Bengal University of Health Sciences and offers both undergraduate and post graduate courses. The hospital has 1,890 beds.[36][37]In 1789, there was an asylum for dying destitutes picked from the streets. It was called Police or Pauper Hospital. In 1874, Sealdah Medical School was set up here. In 1884, it became Campbell Medical School. Indians could be hospitalised here, because the first hospital started in Kolkata in 1709, which evolved as Presidency General Hospital, was strictly for Europeans. In 1948, it became Campbell Medical College, and in 1950 was renamed after Sir Nilratan Sircar, eminent doctor and swadeshi entrepreneur.[38][36][39]
  • B.R. Singh Hospital, set up as a small health unit in 1934, has grown to be one of the best-equipped railway hospitals in the country. It is named after Baba Ramrick Singh, first Indian Railway Agent and the then acting GM of East Bengal Railway. It has 461 beds.[40][37]
  • Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College and Hospital at Sealdah is the oldest dental college in India. It was founded in 1920 by Dr. Rafiuddin Ahmed, the pioneer in dentistry in the country. It was financed by starting the New York Soda Fountain in Kolkata. It was affiliated with the state medical facility in 1936, and then with the University of Calcutta in 1949. In the same year, Dr. Ahmed donated his college to the Government of West Bengal. Currently affiliated with the West Bengal University of Health Sciences and recognised by the Dental Council of India, it offers 5-year BDS, 3-year MDS and various specialised courses.[41][42][43]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Nair, P. Thankappan, The Growth and Development of Old Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, pp. 12-19j, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563696-3.
  2. ^ "District Census Handbook Kolkata, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 6-10: The History. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 20 February 2018. 
  3. ^ Cotton, H.E.A., Calcutta Old and New, first published 1909/reprint 1980, pages 103-4 and 221, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  4. ^ a b Cotton, H. E. A. (1907). Calcutta, Old and New: A Historical & Descriptive Handbook to the City. Calcutta: W. Newman & Co. p. 222. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 
  5. ^ Sinha, Pradip, Siraj’s Calcutta 1756-57, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, p. 8.
  6. ^ Map no. 31, Detail Maps of 141 Wards of Kolkata, D.R.Publication and Sales Concern, 66 College Street, Kolkata – 700073
  7. ^ Chatterjee, Monideep, "Town Planning in Calcutta: Past, Present and Future", "Calcutta, The Living City" Vol II, Edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, Page 141, First published 1990, 2005 edition, ISBN 019 563697
  8. ^ Chaudhuri, Sukanta, The Railway Comes to Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, p. 259.
  9. ^ "The Chronology of Railway development in Eastern Indian". railindia. Archived from the original on 2008-03-16. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  10. ^ a b "Kolkata Police". Central Division. KP. Retrieved 21 March 2018. 
  11. ^ Bandopadhyay, Raghab, Calcutta’s Markets, in Calcutta, The Living City Vol II, Edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, Page 118, First published 1990, 2005 edition, ISBN 019 563697
  12. ^ Mukherjee, Sugato. "The Human Forklifts of Kolkata". The Diplomat, 6 February 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  13. ^ "Primary Hats/ Markets of District". Markets in Brief - Kolkata. West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  14. ^ "Ltterpress – the pride of Bengal fading into oblivion". Beacon Kolkata. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  15. ^ "Where can you buy wedding cards in Kolkata". Quora. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  16. ^ Basu, Kaushik. "Sealdah traffic fine-tuning". The Telegraph, 23 May 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  17. ^ "Sealdah can't take more commuters". The Times of India, 7 March 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  18. ^ Basu, Raj Sekhar. "Calcutta Tramways". Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 
  19. ^ Nair, P.Thankappan, Civic and Public Services in Old Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, page 235, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563696-3.
  20. ^ "About Sealdah Station". SCRIBD. Retrieved 27 July 2018. 
  21. ^ "Kolkata to get six flyovers in three years". The Times of India, 16 September 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Surendranath College". SC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "Surendranath College, Kolkata". College Admission. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  24. ^ "Surndranath Law College". SNLC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  25. ^ "Surendranath Evening College". SNEC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  26. ^ "Surendranath Evening College". College Admission. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  27. ^ "Surendranath College for Women". SNCW. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  28. ^ a b c "Bangabasi College". BC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  29. ^ "Bangabasi Morning College". BMC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  30. ^ "Bangabasi Evening College". BEC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  31. ^ "Acharya Girish Chandra Bose College". AGCBC. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  32. ^ "Loreto Day School, Sealdah, Kolkata". Loreto Sealdah. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  33. ^ "Loreto Day School, Sealdah". schools at collegeadmission.in. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  34. ^ "Mitra Institution (Main)". MIM. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  35. ^ "Mitra Institution (Main) School". ICBSE. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  36. ^ a b "Nil Ratan Sarkar Medical College and Hospital". College Admission. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  37. ^ a b "Health Statistics -> Hospital" (PDF). District:Kolkata. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  38. ^ Nair, Thankappan, Civic and Public Services in Old Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, page 239, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563696-3.
  39. ^ "Nil Ratan Sarkar Medical College and Hospital". NRSMC. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  40. ^ "B.R.Singh Hospital". indiaheartbeat.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  41. ^ "Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College". CAREERINDIA. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  42. ^ "Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College and Hospital". Bright Educational Service. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  43. ^ "IDA - West Bengal History (Dr. Rafiuddin Ahmed". Indian Dental Association – West Bengal State Branch. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 

External links

External video
Variety of fish at Sealdah
Kolay Market at Sealdah