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L'École des hautes études en sciences sociales
|École pratique des hautes études, VI Section (1947–1975),
École libre des hautes études (1941-1946)
|Type||grande école (informal)
|Established||January 23, 1975|
|Location||Paris, Marseille, Toulouse, Lyon, France|
|Affiliations||Paris Sciences et Lettres (Université PSL)|
The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (French: École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is a French grande école (élite higher-education establishment that operates outside the regulatory framework of the public university system) specialised in the social sciences and often considered as the most prestigious institution for the social sciences in France. It is an associated college of PSL University.
Originally a department of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, an institution created in 1868 with the purpose of training academic researchers, the EHESS became an independent institution in 1975. Today its research covers the fields of Economics and Finance (through the Paris School of Economics), Cognitive Sciences, Humanities, Political Sciences, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Development studies, Sociology, Anthropology, History, Musicology, and Philosophy of social science.
The institution is heavily focused on research and some of its faculty (known as "directeurs d'études") have achieved international recognition in different areas: from economics as Thomas Piketty and Nobel Prize Jean Tirole, historians such as Fernand Braudel or Lucien Febvre, anthropologists such as Claude Levi-Strauss, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro and Marcel Mauss, sociologists such as Pierre Bourdieu, Edgar Morin and Alain Touraine, philosophers such as Jacques Derrida, and interdisciplinary scholars such as Marcel Mauss and Raymond Aron.
As a higher education institution under the jurisdiction of the French Ministry of Education, the EHESS trains academic researchers and professors specialised in the social sciences. It delivers postgraduate degrees. such as the master of research and the doctorate, as well as a school diploma. Some of them are awarded conjointly by institutions such as the École Normale Supérieure, the École Polytechnique, the École pratique des hautes études, and some of the universities of Paris.
The EHESS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system and therefore has the faculty to recruit its students through a selection process based on the research project of the applicants. The scholars in training are free to choose their own curriculum among the large quantity of seminars offered by the school. The école has a small student-faculty ratio (830 researchers for 3000 students) and most faculty belonging to other institutions, mostly the CNRS but also other schools of Université PSL such as the ENS, the EPHE and the ENC, schools of Université Paris-Saclay such as Télécom Paristech and the ENSAE, and some of the universities of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows the EHESS to benefit from a continuous stream of France's topmost researchers in the Social Sciences and the constant supervision of students' research projects.
Originally part of the École pratique des hautes études (EPHE) as its VI Section: Sciences économiques et sociales, the EHESS gained autonomy as an independent higher education institution on 23 January 1975. The creation of a dedicated branch for social science research within the EPHE found its origin in the Annales historical school and was supported by several initiatives of the Rockefeller Foundation dating back to the 1920s. After WWII, the Rockefeller Foundation invested more funds, in the aims of favorizing non-Marxist sociological studies.
Thus, the VIth section was created in 1947, and Lucien Febvre took its head. Soon after its creation (1947), the VI Section, later EHESS, became one of the most influential shapers of contemporary historiography, area studies and social sciences methodology, thanks to the contribution of eminent scholars such as Fernand Braudel, Jacques Le Goff or François Furet. F. Braudel succeeded in 1956 to L. Febvre and concentrated the various study groups at its well-known emplacement on boulevard Raspail, in part by a financing from the Ford Foundation.
Today, the EHESS is one of France's prestigious Grands établissements. It functions as a research, teaching, and degree-granting institution. It offers advanced students high-level programs intended to lead to research careers. Students are admitted on the relevance of their research project and undertake at the EHESS master programs and doctoral studies. The main areas of specialization include: history, literary theory, linguistics, philosophy, philology, sociology, anthropology, economics, cognitive science, demographics, geography, archaeology, psychology, law, and mathematics, although the institution's focus is on interdisciplinary research within these fields. The EHESS currently hosts more than 80 research centers (among which several joint research units with the CNRS) and 22 doctoral programs, 13 of which in partnership with other French Universities and Grandes écoles.
The school is now a constituent college of the federal PSL Research University. Other institutions include the College de France, the École Normale Supérieure, the École pratique des hautes études, Chimie ParisTech, ESPCI ParisTech, the École des mines, and Paris Dauphine University.
Lucien Febvre and Fernand Braudel were members of the École des Annales, the dominant school of historical analysis in France during the interwar period. However, this school of thought was contested by the growing importance of the social sciences and the beginning of structuralism. Under pressure from Claude Lévi-Strauss, in particular, they integrated new contributions from the fields of sociology and ethnography to event-based historical analysis, a concept put forward the Annales school, to advocate for the concept of "a nearly imperceptible passage of history". They were reproached, along with the structuralists, for ignoring politics and the individual's influence over his fate during a period in which the colonial wars of emancipation were taking place.
The work of Braudel, Le Roy Ladurie and other historians working under their influence greatly affected the research and official teaching of history in France beginning in the 1960s. The work of Jean-Marie Pesez renewed interest in the issue of methodology in medieval archeology and created the idea of "material culture".
During the 1970s, EHESS became the center of New History under the influence of Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora. During this period, a generation of ethnologists working under the ideas of Georges Balandier and Marc Augé were critical of the French colonial tradition and applied modern sociological concepts to third world countries.
EHESS has always been a central place for economic debate in Europe. In France this debate is also permitted by the proximity of the researchers with economic institution: In this sense EHESS has had among its Professor in Economy State advisors with a large media audience (like it was the case for example for Jean Fourastié). The diversity of viewpoints has been a priority and even liberal and Marxist economists have had the chance to debate in EHESS. Since the 1970s and 1980s EHESS has focused on quantitative economics with famous Professors as Louis-André Gérard-Varet, Jean-Jacques Laffont, François Bourguignon and Roger Guesnerie, who initiated not only Paris School of Economics but Toulouse School of Economics and Grequam (Aix-Marseille)
More than 50% of the students' body comes from another country than France.
The research institutes and teams hosted at the EHESS, the CNRS, and other partner institutions are:
As a world leading institution in research and applied research EHESS has exchange programs with world leading universities such as Berkeley, Cambridge, Charles, Columbia, Humboldt, Lomonossov, Michigan, Oxford, Tokyo, Kyoto, Peking, the European Institute in Florence, etc. Also, there are many relations and exchange programs with top universities in Asia and Middle-East as there are world-renowned research centers on Asian Studies and Islamic Studies in EHESS.
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