Statue of horses at the Nandikeshwari Temple complex
Business Capital of Birbhum
|• Body||Sainthia Municipality|
|• Chairman||Biplab Dutta|
|• Vice Chairman||Kazi Kamal Hosein|
|• Total||16 km2 (6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||54.94 m (180.25 ft)|
|• Rank||4th, Birbhum District|
|• Density||4,460/km2 (11,600/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Sainthian / Sainthiabashi|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||WB 54|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Birbhum|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Sainthia|
Sainthia (formerly Nandipur) is a city and a municipality in Suri Sadar subdivision of Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal. The city is known as business city of Birbhum district. The city is under the jurisdiction of Sainthia police station. Sainthia is the fourth most populous city in Birbhum district and 95th most populous city in West Bengal. The city covers an area of 16 km2 and had a population of 44,601 in 2011. Located on the banks of Mayurakshi River, Sainthia has been a major settlement. The city is famous for Nandikeshwari Temple, one of the Shakti Peethas in Indian subcontinent.
It is believed that the name Sainthia is derived from 'Sain', a Bengali term used to refer to an Islamic priest. Sainthia was also known as 'Nandipur', after the famous temple of Nandikeshwari.
It is also believed that the name Sainthia is derived from 'Saaita', a term used in Khero Khata (Business Book) by the merchants of Sainthia after worshiping Goddess Nandikeshwari in Poila Boishakh and Vijaya Dashami.
Sainthia was a small village. Urbanization of this area gained momentum in the recent past, when construction work of the Sahibganj loop line and a bridge over the Mayurakshi River started. Construction of the Khana-Rajmahal section of Sahibganj Loop was completed in October 1859. The first train ran from Howrah to Rajmahal via Khana Junction on 4 July 1860. Construction of the Sainthia railway station was done as part of building the entire line. This large project brought people from different corners of the country to assemble and settle here. Sainthia, an old village trade center, a place of pilgrimage has been emerged into a municipal city in the year 1987.
|Cities and towns in Suri Sadar subdivision of Birbhum district|
M: municipal city/ town, CT: census town, R: rural/ urban centre, B: Barrage.
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly
Sainthia's climate is classified as tropical. In winter, there is much less rainfall in Sainthia than in summer. The average annual temperature is 26.3 °C in Sainthia. The temperature goes very high and it is very humid in summer and quite cold in winter. In a year, the average rainfall is 1328 mm. 
The Sainthia municipality area spread over 16 km2 (6.18 sq mi) and comprises 16 wards. The north-south dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Mayurakshi River in the north to roughly Pariharpur Village in the south—a span of 2–3 km. The east-west dimension of the city is widest with the span of 5–6 km.
In 1901, according to L. S. S. O'Molley's Bengal District Gazetters, Sainthia had a population of 2622 and in 1911 Sainthia had a population of 3551.
|Sources: 1901-1911, 1941-2001|
As of 2011 Census of India, the Sainthia Municipality has a population of 44,601, of which 22,856 are males while 21,745 are females. The population of children under age 6 is 4511, which is 10.11% of the total population of Sainthia. In Sainthia, the female sex ratio is 951, against the state average of 950. The child sex ratio is around 880, compared to the West Bengal state average of 956. The literacy rate of Sainthia is 79.50%, higher than state average of 76.26%. Male literacy is around 84.70% while female literacy is 74.08%. Out of the total population, 16,485 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this, 13,481 were males while 3,004 were females. In the census survey, a worker is defined as a person who does business, job, service, cultivator, or labour activity. Of the total 16,485 working population, 92.97% were engaged in main work while 7.03% were engaged in marginal work. Sainthia has over 10,229 houses.
Ward number 16 is the most populous ward with population of 3814 and ward number 4 is the least populous ward with population of 1638.
Sainthia is an economically important city and one of the busiest business hubs in the middle part of West Bengal. Sainthia city is the main trading centre in the district. The economy is based on agricultural products and their allied businesses. Rice mills, mastered oil mills, bran oil mills, puffed rice mills, jaggery/gur and galvanized wire product units and other businesses run here. The economy of Sainthia stands tall due to the sales of agricultural products. The city is known as an export and import centre for cottage industry and agricultural based different goods. The hinterland of business of Sainthia spreads up to the districts of Jharkhand in the west and Assam in the north east. The city is well connected to different parts of the country. From the city, the agricultural products are exported to different parts of the State and also to different parts of the Eastern India through high roads and railroads. That makes the city the business centre of all sorts of goods distribution and transportation. Its socio-economical status is quite strong and education ratio is steadily increasing.
The nearest domestic airport is Kazi Nazrul Islam International Airport. The airport is roughly 74 kilometers from central Sainthia.
The Sainthia railway station serves the entire city and is the most important and key railway station of Birbum district. It also serves as the originating station of 4 important trains. The Sainthia railway station connects to both of Kolkata's two busy rail terminals, Howrah railway station and Sealdah railway station.
There are two colleges in Sainthia:
There is one government-sponsored public library in Sainthia.
Sainthia is influenced much by the culture of West Bengal. Festivals in Sainthia are inherited by the entire state of West Bengal. The language that is generally spoken here are Bengali and Hindi. However, people from other parts of India who have settled in Sainthia, obviously speak other languages. The festivals that are most commonly celebrated are the Durga Puja, Saraswati Puja, Holi, Christmas. Also, Ganesh Puja is done during Sankashti Chaturthi.
The festivals like Sankashti Chaturthi is sincerely celebrated throughout the city of Sainthia by the local people. Though this festival is celebrated throughout India, the people of Sainthia give more importance to this festival.
Sainthia travel guide from Wikivoyage