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Safi of Persia

Shah Safi
Shahanshah of Iran
Mirza (royal title)
Sahib-i-Qiran
Sultan bar Salatin [1]
Lion and Sun Emblem of Persia.svg
Shah Safi age 31 in 1642- Sahand Ace.jpg
6th Safavid Shah
Reign 28 January 1629 – 12 May 1642
Coronation 28 January 1629
Predecessor Abbas I
Successor Abbas II
Born 1611
Died 12 May 1642 (aged 30/31)
Burial Qom, Iran
Spouse Princess Tinatina
Anna Khanum
House Safavi
Father Mohammad Baqer Mirza
Mother Dilaram Khanum

Sam Mirza (Persian: سام میرزا‎‎), better known by his dynastic name of Shah Safi (Persian: شاه صفی‎‎) was the sixth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1629 to 1642.

Early life

Safi was given the name Sam Mirza when he was born. He was the son of Mohammed Baqir Mirza, the eldest son of Shah Abbas I, and Dilaram Khanum, a Georgian wife.[2] In 1615, Abbas had Mohammed Baqir killed, fearing he was plotting against his life. Over the next few years, the suspicious Abbas killed or blinded his other sons, leaving his grandson Safi heir to the throne.

Reign

Rostom (also known as Rustam Khan), viceroy of Kartli, eastern Georgia, from 1633-1658.

Safi was crowned on 28 January 1629 at the age of eighteen.[3] He ruthlessly eliminated anyone he regarded as a threat to his power, executing almost all the Safavid royal princes as well as leading courtiers and generals. He paid little attention to the business of government and had no cultural or intellectual interests (he had never learned to read or write properly), preferring to spend his time drinking wine or indulging in his addiction to opium. Supposedly, however, he abhorred tobacco smoke as much as his grandfather did, going as far as to have those caught smoking tobacco in public killed by pouring molten lead in their mouths.[citation needed]

The dominant political figure of Safi's reign was Saru Taqi, appointed grand vizier in 1634. Saru Taqi was incorruptible and highly efficient at raising revenues for the state, but he could also be autocratic and arrogant.

Iran's foreign enemies took the opportunity to exploit Safi's perceived weakness. Despite firm initial Safavid successes and humiliating defeats in the Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-39) by Safi's grandfather and predecessor Shah Abbas the Great, the Ottomans, the sworn arch rivals of the Safavids, made incursions in the west in one year following Safi's ascension to the throne. In 1634 they briefly occupied Yerevan and Tabriz and in 1638 they finally succeeded in capturing and gaining a strong foothold in Baghdad and other parts of Mesopotamia (Iraq) which, despite being taken again several times later on in history by the Persians and most notably by Nader Shah, it would all remain in their hands until the aftermath of World War I. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Zuhab which ensued in 1639 put an end to all further wars between the Safavids and the Ottomans. Apart from the Ottoman wars, Iran was troubled by the Uzbeks and Turkmens in the east and briefly lost Kandahar in their easternmost territories to the Mughals in 1638, due to what seems as an act of revenge by their own governor over the region, Ali Mardan Khan, after being dismissed from office.[4]

In 1636 he received a trade delegation from Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, which included Adam Olearius. Adam wrote a book about this visit in 1647, which was widely published in Europe. In 1639, Safi sent a return delegation to Holstein-Gottorp, bestowing gifts on the Duke.[5] However, the Duke did not succeed in his ultimate aim - starting a regular trading relationship with Iran (and Russia) and making the Duke's newly-founded town of Friedrichstadt into a European trade terminus.

Safi died on 12 May 1642 as a result of excessive drinking,[6] and was buried in Qom. He was succeeded by his son Abbas II.

Issue

Safi I married numerous times;

Sons

  • Prince (Shahzada) ‘Abbas Mirza. b. 30th August 1632. He d.v.p. before 1642.
  • Prince (Shahzada) Sultan Muhammad Mirza, who succeeded as H.M. ‘Abu’l Muzaffar Shah ‘Abbas II bin Shah Safi al-Safawi al-Husaini al-Musavi Bahadur Khan, Sahib-i-Qiran, Shahanshah of Persia (s/o Ana Khanum) – see below.
  • Prince (Shahzada) Tahmasp Mirza. Blinded 1642.
  • Prince (Shahzada) Bahram Mirza. Blinded 1642.
  • Prince (Shahzada) Sultan Haidar Mirza. Blinded 1642.
  • Prince (Shahzada) Ismail Haidar Mirza. Blinded 1642.

Daughters

  • Princess (Shahzadi ‘Alamiyan) Mariam Begum. b. ca. 1640. m. General Mirza Abu Salih (d. 1686), son of Mirza Muhsin. She d. at Isfahan, after October 1719.
  • Princess (Shahzadi ‘Alamiyan) Pari Rukhshah Begum. m. General Mirza Abu Talib (d. 22nd March 1688), son of Mirza Baqir. She had issue, two sons.
  • Princess (Shahzadi ‘Alamiyan) Azim Begum.

References

  1. ^ The Royal Ark
  2. ^ Sussan Babaie and others: Slaves of the Shah (I.B. Tauris, 2003) p.104
  3. ^ Buyers, Christopher. "PERSIA - The Safavid Dynasty (Genealogy)". Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  4. ^ Kohn 2007, p. 338
  5. ^ Granlund 2004, p. 58.
  6. ^ Buyers, Christopher. "PERSIA - The Safavid Dynasty (Genealogy)". Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  7. ^ Sale; et al. (1759). "An Universal history, from the earliest account of time". 26. Printed for T. Osborne: 475. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 

Sources

Safi of Persia
Preceded by
Abbas I
Shah of Persia
1629–1642
Succeeded by
Abbas II