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SM U-46

History
German Empire
Name: U-46
Ordered: 4 August 1914
Builder: Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig
Launched: 18 May 1915
Commissioned: 17 December 1915
Fate: Surrendered to Japan 26 November 1918
History
Japanese Empire
Name: O-2
Acquired: 26 November 1918
Commissioned: 1920
Decommissioned: 1921
Fate:
  • Possibly scrapped 1922;
  • Possibly foundered 21 April 1925 and
  • scuttled on or after 5 August 1927
General characteristics [1]
Class and type: Type U-43 submarine
Displacement:
  • 725 t (714 long tons) surfaced
  • 940 t (930 long tons) submerged
Length: 65.00 m (213 ft 3 in) (o/a)
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) (oa)
  • 4.18 m (13 ft 9 in) (pressure hull)
Height: 9.00 m (29 ft 6 in)
Draught: 3.74 m (12 ft 3 in)
Installed power:
  • 2 × 2,000 PS (1,471 kW; 1,973 shp) surfaced
  • 2 × 1,200 PS (883 kW; 1,184 shp) submerged
Propulsion: 2 shafts
Speed:
  • 15.2 knots (28.2 km/h; 17.5 mph) surfaced
  • 9.7 knots (18.0 km/h; 11.2 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 11,400 nmi (21,100 km; 13,100 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) surfaced
  • 51 nmi (94 km; 59 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) submerged
Test depth: 50 m (164 ft 1 in)
Complement: 36
Armament:
Service record[2]
Part of:
  • III Flotilla
  • 29 March 1916 – 11 November 1918
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Leo Hillebrand
  • 17 December 1915 - 6 December 1917
  • Kptlt. Alfred Saalwächter
  • 7 December 1916 – 15 January 1917
  • Kptlt. Leo Hillebrand
  • 16 January – 11 November 1918
Operations: 11 patrols
Victories:
  • 52 merchant ships sunk (140,314 GRT)
  • 1 merchant ship damaged (7,378 GRT)

SM U-46 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-46 was engaged in the combat during World War I and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic. After the war, she served in the Imperial Japanese Navy as O-2.

Imperial German Navy

Ordered on 4 August 1914, U-46 was constructed at the Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig, Germany. Launched on 18 May 1915, she was commissioned on 17 December 1915.[3]

Assigned to the III Flotilla, U-46 began her first war patrol on 29 March 1916. Remaining in the III Flotilla for the rest of the war, she conducted a total of 11 war patrols before the war ended on 11 November 1918, and was credited with sinking 51 merchant ships totaling 138,942 gross register tons and one warship of 1,372 displacement tons and damaging one merchant ship of 7,378 gross register tons.[3]

After the end of the war, she surrendered to Japan on 26 November 1918.[3]

Summary of raiding history

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[4]
29 September 1916 Ravn  Norway 1,260 Sunk
29 September 1916 Sinsen  Norway 1,925 Sunk
30 September 1916 Hafnia  Norway 962 Sunk
30 September 1916 Hekla  Norway 950 Sunk
4 October 1916 Brantingham  United Kingdom 2,617 Sunk
6 October 1916 Erika  Russian Empire 2,430 Sunk
9 October 1916 Astoria  United Kingdom 4,262 Sunk
11 October 1916 Iolo  United Kingdom 3,903 Sunk
16 December 1916 Chassie Maersk  Denmark 1,387 Sunk
16 December 1916 Taki Maru  Japan 3,208 Sunk
16 December 1916 Gerda  Denmark 775 Sunk
17 December 1916 Bayhall  United Kingdom 3,898 Sunk
19 December 1916 Falk  Norway 948 Sunk
23 December 1916 Marques De Urquijo  Spain 2,170 Sunk
25 December 1916 Marie Pierre  France 166 Sunk
27 December 1916 Aislaby  United Kingdom 2,692 Sunk
27 December 1916 Goulfar  France 259 Sunk
21 March 1917 Hindustan  United Kingdom 3,692 Sunk
23 March 1917 Argo  Portugal 1,563 Sunk
24 March 1917 Montreal  France 3,342 Sunk
1 April 1917 Aztec  United States 3,727 Sunk
3 April 1917 Hesperus  Russian Empire 2,231 Sunk
5 April 1917 Benheather  United Kingdom 4,701 Sunk
7 April 1917 Fiskaa  Norway 1,700 Sunk
15 May 1917 Grosholm  Norway 1,847 Sunk
17 May 1917 Lewisham  United Kingdom 2,810 Sunk
18 May 1917 Llandrindod  United Kingdom 3,841 Sunk
18 May 1917 Penhale  United Kingdom 3,712 Sunk
20 May 1917 HMS Paxton[5]  United Kingdom 1,372 Sunk
22 May 1917 Tansan Maru  Japan 2,443 Sunk
24 May 1917 Jersey City  United Kingdom 4,670 Sunk
24 July 1917 Brumaire  United Kingdom 2,324 Sunk
24 July 1917 Zermatt  United Kingdom 3,767 Sunk
25 July 1917 Peninsula  United Kingdom 1,384 Sunk
25 July 1917 Purley  United Kingdom 4,500 Sunk
27 July 1917 Begona No. 4  United Kingdom 2,407 Sunk
31 July 1917 Shimosa  United Kingdom 4,221 Sunk
22 October 1917 Zillah  United Kingdom 3,788 Sunk
24 October 1917 Ilderton  United Kingdom 3,125 Sunk
28 October 1917 Baron Balfour  United Kingdom 3,991 Sunk
4 November 1917 Irina  Russian Empire 2,210 Sunk
7 November 1917 Obj  Norway 1,829 Sunk
27 January 1918 Andania  United Kingdom 13,405 Sunk
31 January 1918 Towneley  United Kingdom 2,476 Sunk
1 February 1918 Cavallo  United Kingdom 2,086 Sunk
3 February 1918 Lutece  France 1,346 Sunk
5 February 1918 Cresswell  United Kingdom 2,829 Sunk
13 March 1918 Crayford  United Kingdom 1,209 Sunk
18 March 1918 Atlantic Sun  United States 2,333 Sunk
30 March 1918 Stabil  Norway 538 Sunk
25 May 1918 Rathlin Head  United Kingdom 7,378 Damaged
16 September 1918 Tasman  United Kingdom 5,023 Sunk
25 September 1918 Gloire a Jesus  France 60 Sunk

Imperial Japanese Navy

Transferred to Japan after surrendering, the submarine was commissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1920 as O-2. Decommissioned in 1921, she was partly dismantled at Kure Navy Yard in April 1921.[3]

A photo of U-46 apparently at the time of transfer to Japan shows the submarine docked and flying the flag of the Imperial Japanese Navy over the flag of the Imperial German Navy.[6]

Some sources claim that O-2 was scrapped in 1922.[7][8] Other sources claim that in 1925, O-2 was rebuilt at Yokosuka Navy Yard to serve as a testbed for submarine salvage operations by the submarine salvage ship Asahi and foundered in the Pacific Ocean in a storm off the coast of Japan during her transfer voyage from Yokosuka to Kure on 21 April 1925,[3] adding that an American merchant ship sighted her derelict hulk floating in the Pacific west of Oahu, Hawaii, on 5 August 1927, and that the hulk subsequently was scuttled.[3]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

Citations

  1. ^ Gröner 1991, pp. 8-10.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 46". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "U 46". Uboat.net. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 46". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  5. ^ "Richard Tallack". A Tale of one City. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "Photo of U-46 at the time of transfer to the Imperial Japanese Navy". Imperial War Museums (UK). Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Gardiner, p. 177
  8. ^ Gröner, p. 9.

Bibliography

  • Gardiner, Robert (1985). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906-1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-907-3. 
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.