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Ryzen

AMD Ryzen
AMD ryzen stylized.svg
ProducedFrom February 2017 to present
Marketed byAMD
Designed byAMD
Common manufacturer(s)
Max. CPU clock rate3.0 GHz to 4.4 GHz
Min. feature size14 nm to 12 nm
Instruction setAMD64/x86-64, MMX(+), SSE1, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4a, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, CVT16/F16C, ABM, BMI1, BMI2, SHA
MicroarchitectureZen
Zen+
CoresUp to 32 cores/64 threads
Transistors4.8 billion (per 8 cores)[1]
Socket(s)
PredecessorFX
Product code name(s)
  • Summit Ridge (Desktop)
  • Whitehaven (HEDT)
  • Raven Ridge (APU)
  • Pinnacle Ridge (Desktop)

Ryzen (/ˈrzən/ RY-zən)[2] is a brand[3] of central processing units (CPUs) and accelerated processing units (APUs) marketed and designed by AMD (Advanced Micro Devices).

The brand was introduced in 2017 with products implementing the Zen microarchitecture for the CPU, and the first Ryzen-branded products were officially announced during AMD's New Horizon summit on December 13, 2016.[4] The second generation of Ryzen CPUs feature the Zen+ microarchitecture, built with 12 nm process technology and were released on April 19, 2018.[5]

Product lineup

Zen microarchitecture

History

In the five years before the release of Ryzen, AMD's direct competitor in the x86-64 consumer-level CPU marketspace, Intel, had continued to grow its market share with the tick-tock cycle of their Intel Core series of chips.[6] Since the release of the Bulldozer microarchitecture in 2011 AMD had fallen behind Intel significantly in both single-core and multi-core CPU performance benchmarks.[7] While AMD had completed a die shrink and revision of the Bulldozer architecture, performance and sales had fallen significantly against competing Intel products.[citation needed] Ryzen is the first consumer-level implementation of the new Zen microarchitecture.[8][9] Ryzen CPUs offered stronger multi-threaded performance and weaker single-threaded performance relative to comparable Intel CPUs.[citation needed] The Ryzen CPUs returned AMD to the high-end desktop CPU market, offering performance able to compete with Intel's Core i7 series of CPUs.[10] AMD's high-performance x86-core Zen architecture delivers >52% improvement in instructions-per-clock cycle over the previous-generation AMD core, without increasing power consumption.[11] Since the release of Ryzen CPUs, AMD's CPU market share has increased.[6]

CPUs: Summit Ridge / Whitehaven

  • Socket AM4 or Socket TR4 for Threadripper.[12][13]
  • Memory support DDR4-2666 ×2 Single Rank, DDR4-2400 ×2 Dual Rank, DDR4-2133 ×4 Single Rank, or DDR4-1866 ×4 Dual Rank. (With compatible DIMM quantities doubled on Threadripper due to its dual IMCs, and thus quad-channel memory support).[12][14]
  • Instructions Sets: x87, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, CVT16/F16C, ABM, BMI1, BMI2, SHA.[15]
  • Transistors: 4.8 billion per 8-core "Zeppelin" die[1]
  • Die size: 192 mm2[16]
  • Stepping: B1[17]
  • Ryzen CPUs feature unlocked multipliers across the board for overclocking. All Ryzen products also support temperature-based auto-overclocking, dubbed "XFR" (eXtended Frequency Range); with "X"-branded Ryzen products having twice the potential amount of XFR boost as non-"X" models (100 MHz vs 50 MHz).[18] This is despite the fact that AMD doesn't list the latter as supporting XFR at all. Also of note that these values are doubled on Threadripper; with "X" models having 200 MHz, rather than the usual 100 MHz of XFR boost.[19]
  • AMD officially revealed their codename "Summit Ridge" Ryzen CPUs on February 22, 2017.[20] "Whitehaven" is planned to be a large, LGA "S3" socket, HEDT (high-end desktop) variant with 16 cores and 32 threads.[21]
  • Ryzen is launching in conjunction with a line of stock coolers, the "Wraith Spire", "Wraith Stealth" and "Wraith Max". This line succeeds the original "Wraith" cooler, which was positively received when released in mid-2016.[22] The "Wraith Stealth" and "Wraith Spire" are included with certain Ryzen CPUs; the "Stealth" is a low-profile unit meant for the lower-end CPUs and is rated for a TDP of 65 W, whereas the "Spire" is the mainstream cooler with a TDP rating of 95 W and modest headroom for overclocking, along with optional RGB lighting on certain models. The "Wraith Max" is a larger, aftermarket unit intended to handle more intensive overclocks than the "Spire".
  • AMD's SenseMI Technology, which uses AMD Infinity Control Fabric to offer the following features:[12][23][24]
    • AMD Pure Power reduces the entire ramp of processor voltage and clock speed, for light loads.
    • AMD Precision Boost increases the processor voltage and clock speed by 100–200 MHz if three or more cores are active (five or more, in the case of Threadripper, and by 300 MHz); and significantly further when less than three are active (less than five, in the case of Threadripper).[25][26]
    • AMD XFR ("eXtended Frequency Range") increases the processor voltage and clock speed beyond the maximum Precision Boost, when sufficient cooling is available (described in detail above).[27]
    • Neural Net Prediction and Smart Prefetch use AI inside the processor to optimize instruction workflow and cache management.
Processor
branding & model
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] TDP Socket Memory
support
PCIe lanes[b] Release
date
Release
price
(USD)
Base Precision Boost
1–2
(3+)
XFR L1 L2 L3
Entry-level
Ryzen 3 1200[30][31][32] 4[33] (4) 3.1 3.4
(?)
3.45[34] 384 KB [6][35][36][37][38][39][40] 512 KB per core [41][42][43] 8 MB 65 W [44] AM4 DDR4-2666

Dual-channel

24[45] July 27, 2017 $109
Pro 1200[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
1300X[30][31] 3.5 3.7
(?)
3.9[48] July 27, 2017 $129
Pro 1300[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
Mainstream
Ryzen 5 1400 4 (8) 3.2 3.4
(?)
3.45 384 KB [6][35][36][37][38][39][40] 512 KB per core [41][42][43] 8 MB 65 W [44] AM4 DDR4-2666

Dual-channel

24[45] April 11, 2017 $169
1500X 3.5 3.7
(3.6)
3.9 16 MB [41] April 11, 2017 $189
Pro 1500[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
1600 6 (12) 3.2 3.6
(3.4)
3.7 576 KB [49][50][51] April 11, 2017 $219
Pro 1600[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
1600X 3.6 4.0
(3.7)
4.1 95 W April 11, 2017 $249
Performance
Ryzen 7 1700 8 (16)[52] 3.0 3.7
(3.2)
3.75 768 KB [53][54][55][56] 512 KB per core [41][42][43] 16 MB [41] 65 W AM4 DDR4-2666

Dual-channel

24[45] March 2, 2017 $329
Pro 1700[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
1700X 3.4 3.8[57]
(3.5)
3.9 95 W Mar 2, 2017 $399
Pro 1700X[46][47] June 29, 2017 OEM
1800X 3.6 4.0
(3.7)
4.1 March 2, 2017 $499
High-End Desktop (HEDT)
Ryzen
Threadripper [58][59]
1900X[41][60][52] 8 (16)[52] 3.8[52] 4.0
(3.9[61][62])
4.2 768 KB 512 KB per core [41][42][43] 16 MB [41] 180 W TR4[63] DDR4-2666
Quad-channel[63][64]
64[65] August 31, 2017[52] $549
1920X[66][41] 12 (24) 3.5 4.0
(3.7)[67]
1.125 MB [43] 32 MB [41][42][43] August 10, 2017[60][52] $799
1950X[66][41] 16 (32) 3.4 4.0
(3.7)
1.5 MB [42] $999
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[28]
  2. ^ PCIe lane count includes 4 lanes used for connectivity to the chipset.[29]

APUs: Raven Ridge

AMD's CEO, Lisa Su, confirmed during a March 2017 Reddit AMA on /r/AMD that Zen-based APUs would also be branded Ryzen.[68] Traditionally, AMD's APUs were branded separately from their CPUs. The branding was later clarified as Ryzen Mobile, and AMD stated that the products would have higher CPU and GPU performance and lower power than the previous generation of APUs.[69]

In May 2017, AMD demonstrated a Ryzen Mobile APU with four Zen CPU cores and Vega-based GPU,[70] the first Ryzen Mobile APUs were officially released in October 2017.[71] It is the first chip by AMD that features the Video Core Next ASIC.

Mobile
Model CPU GPU Memory support TDP Release
date
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
Ryzen 3 2200U[73] 2 (4) 2.5 3.4 Unknown 1 MB 4 MB Vega 3 192:12:4
(3)[74]
1100 MHz 422.4 DDR4-2400 (dual channel) 12–25 W (configurable) 8 January, 2018
Ryzen 3 2300U[75] 4 (4) 2.0 2 MB Vega 6 384:24:8
(6)[76]
844.8
Ryzen 3 Pro 2300U[77] 15 May, 2018 [71]
Ryzen 5 2500U[78] 4 (8) 3.6 Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)[79]
1126.4 26 October, 2017[78]
Ryzen 5 Pro 2500U[80] 15 May, 2018 [71]
Ryzen 7 2700U[81] 2.2 3.8 Vega 10 640:40:16
(10)[82]
1300 MHz 1664 26 October, 2017[81]
Ryzen 7 Pro 2700U[83] 15 May, 2018 [71]
Ryzen 5 2600H[84] 4 (8) 3.2 3.6 2 MB 4 MB Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)
1100 MHz 1126.4 DDR4-3200 (dual channel) 35–54 W (configurable) 10 September, 2018[85]
Ryzen 7 2800H[84] 3.3 3.8 Vega 11 704:44:16
(11)
1300 MHz 1830.4
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[28]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
Desktop

In January 2018, AMD also announced the first two desktop processors with an integrated Vega GPU under the Raven Ridge codename, which were released in February.[86]

Model CPU GPU Memory
support
TDP Release
date
Release
price
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
Athlon 200GE[87][88] 2 (4) 3.2 N/A Unknown 1 MB 4 MB Vega 3 192:12:4
(3)
1000 MHz 384 DDR4-2666 (Dual channel) 35 W September 6, 2018 $55
Athlon Pro 200GE[89][88] OEM
Ryzen 3 2200GE[90][91] 4 (4) 3.2 3.6 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB RX Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)
1100 MHz 1126 DDR4-2933 (Dual channel)[92][93] 35 W April 19, 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 3 Pro 2200GE[94] May 10, 2018 OEM
Ryzen 3 2200G[93][95] 3.5 3.7 Unknown 45–65 W (configurable) February 12, 2018[96] $99
Ryzen 3 Pro 2200G[97] May 10, 2018 OEM
Ryzen 5 2400GE[98][91] 4 (8) 3.2 3.8 Unknown RX Vega 11 704:44:16
(11)[99]
1250 MHz 1760 35 W April 19, 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 5 Pro 2400GE[100] May 10, 2018 OEM
Ryzen 5 2400G[92][95] 3.6 3.9 Unknown 45–65 W (configurable) February 12, 2018[96][101] $169
Ryzen 5 Pro 2400G[102] May 10, 2018 OEM
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[28]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single-precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.


Embedded

In February 2018, AMD also announced the V1000 series of embedded Zen+Vega APUs with four SKUs.[103]

Model CPU GPU Memory
support
TDP Release
date
Release
price
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
V1202B 2 (4) 2.3 3.2 Unknown 1 MB Unknown RX Vega 3 192:12:16
(3)
1000 MHz 384 DDR4-2400 (Dual channel) 12–25 W Unknown Unknown
V1605B 4 (8) 2.0 3.6 Unknown 2 MB RX Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)
1100 MHz 1126.4 Unknown Unknown
V1756B 3.25 Unknown Unknown 1300 MHz 1331.2 DDR4-3200 (Dual channel) 35–54 W Unknown Unknown
V1807B 3.35 3.8 Unknown RX Vega 11 704:44:16
(11)
1830.4 Unknown Unknown
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[28]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single-precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.

Zen+ microarchitecture

CPUs: Pinnacle Ridge

The first Ryzen 2000 series of CPU products based on the Zen+ microarchitecture, code named Pinnacle Ridge, were announced for preorder on April 13, 2018[104] and launched six days later.

Processor
Branding & Model
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] TDP Socket Memory
support
PCIe
Lanes[b]
Release
date
Release
price (USD)
Base PB2 L2 L3
Entry-level
Ryzen 3 2300X[106] 4 (4) 3.5 4.0 512 KB
per core
8 MB 65 W AM4 DDR4-2933
Dual Channel
24 September 11, 2018 Unknown
Mainstream
Ryzen 5 2500X[106] 4 (8) 3.6 4.0 512 KB
per core
8 MB 65 W AM4 DDR4-2933
Dual Channel
24 September 11, 2018 OEM
2600E[106] 6 (12) 3.1 4.0 16 MB 45 W DDR4-2666
Dual Channel[107]
September 11, 2018
PRO 2600[108] 3.4 3.9 65 W DDR4-2933
Dual Channel
September 6, 2018 OEM
2600[109][110] April 19, 2018 $199
2600X[109][110] 3.6 4.2 95 W $229
Performance
Ryzen 7 2700E[106] 8 (16) 2.8 4.0 512 KB
per core
16 MB 45 W AM4 DDR4-2666
Dual Channel[111]
24 September 11, 2018
PRO 2700[108] 3.2 4.1 65 W DDR4-2933
Dual Channel
September 6, 2018 OEM
2700[109][110] April 19, 2018 $299
PRO 2700X[108] 3.6 4.1 105 W September 6, 2018 OEM
2700X[109][110] 3.7 4.3 April 19, 2018 $329
High-End Desktop (HEDT)
Ryzen
Threadripper
2920X[112][113] 12 (24) 3.5 4.3 512 KB
per core
32 MB 180 W TR4 DDR4-2933
Quad Channel
64 October 2018 $649
2950X[112][113] 16 (32) 3.5 4.4 August 31, 2018 $899
2970WX[112][113] 24 (48) 3.0 4.2 64 MB 250 W October 2018 $1299
2990WX[112][113] 32 (64) 3.0 4.2 August 13, 2018 $1799
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[28]
  2. ^ PCIe lane count includes 4 lanes used for connectivity to the chipset.[105]

Compatibility

Although AMD "verified" the ability for computers with Ryzen processors to boot Windows 7 and Windows 10, Microsoft does not officially support older versions of Windows on newer processors including AMD Ryzen and Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Kaby Lake). Windows Update blocks updates from being installed on newer systems running versions older than Windows 10 – although that restriction can be avoided either by not installing its respective update, or be bypassed entirely with an unofficial patch.[114]

AMD initially announced that Ryzen chipset drivers would not be provided for Windows 7,[115] but AMD's Ryzen and Threadripper chipset driver packages do list and include official drivers for Windows 7.[116]

Ryzen processors are compatible with Linux; the full performance of Ryzen is enabled in kernel version 4.10 or newer.[117]

Initial reception

The first Ryzen 7 1700, 1700X, and 1800X processors debuted in early March 2017 and were generally well received by hardware reviewers.[118][119][120] Ryzen was the first brand new architecture from AMD in five years, and without very much initial fine-tuning or optimization, it ran generally well for reviewers.[121] Initial Ryzen chips ran well with software and games already on the market, performing exceptionally well in workstation scenarios, and well in most gaming scenarios. Compared to Piledriver-powered FX chips, Zen-powered Ryzen chips ran cooler, much faster, and used less power. IPC uplift was eventually gauged to be 52% higher than Excavator, which was two full generations ahead of the architecture still being used in AMD's FX-series desktop predecessors like the FX-8350 and FX-8370.[1] Power consumption and heat were found to be highly competitive with Intel, and the included Wraith coolers were generally competitive with higher-priced aftermarket solutions.

Ryzen's multi-threaded performance, in some cases while using Blender or other open-source software, was around four times the performance of the FX-8370.[122] One reviewer found that Ryzen chips would typically outperform competing Intel i7 processors for a fraction of the price when all eight cores were utilized.[122]

One complaint among a subset of reviewers, however, was that Ryzen processors fell behind their Intel counterparts when running older games, or running certain newer games at mainstream resolutions such as 720p or 1080p.[123] AMD acknowledged the gaming performance deficit at low resolutions during a Reddit "Ask Me Anything Q & A thread", where they explained that updates and patches were being developed.[124] Subsequent updates to Ashes of the Singularity: Escalation and Rise of the Tomb Raider increased frame rates 17–31% on Ryzen systems.[125][126] id Software announced in April 2017 it would optimize its future games to make use of the greater parallelism available on Ryzen CPUs.[127]

It has been suggested that low core utilization resulted in Ryzen processors being underutilized, therefore reflecting lower than expected scores, especially when coupled with the fact that Zen's slightly lower IPC relies on full core utilization.[128][129][130] However, AMD and others have argued thread scheduling is not the fundamental issue to Windows 10 performance.[131][132] There were also issues with AM4 motherboards and their BIOS, which was resulting in many Ryzen chips being underclocked, partially shut off, or generally hindered by BIOS bugs.[citation needed]

Known issues

Spectre

Substantially all modern high performance microprocessors, including Ryzen, were found to be vulnerable to a new category of speculative execution vulnerabilities. The vulnerabilities can be mitigated without hardware changes via microcode updates or operating system workarounds, but the mitigations incur a performance penalty.[133] AMD Ryzen/Epyc suffer a zero to nine percent penalty from the mitigations depending on workload, comparing favorably to a penalty of in some cases more than 20% for Intel Core/Xeon processors,[134] primarily as result of the AMD processors not requiring mitigation against the related Meltdown vulnerability.[135]

AMD has announced that Zen 2, expected in 2019, will include a hardware fix.[136]

Errata

Ryzen faced hard system locks when an application executes certain sequences of FMA3 instructions.[137] AMD stated in mid-March 2017 that the issue would be fixed via new microcode included in UEFI updates from motherboard manufacturers.[138]

Some early Ryzen processors produce segmentation faults on certain workloads on Linux, especially while compiling code with GCC.[139] AMD offered to replace the affected processors with newer ones that are not affected by the problem.[140]

Ryzenfall

In early 2018, an Israeli firm called CTS Labs claimed to have discovered several flaws in the Ryzen components ecosystem: Ryzenfall, which affects the Ryzen desktop CPUs; Fallout, which affects the Epyc CPUs; Masterkey, which affects both CPU classes; and Chimera, which affects the ASMedia-designed USB 3.1 silicon found in the Ryzen desktop SoCs.[141] The unusual behavior of the security firm, disclosing the vulnerabilities without giving AMD time to react, has raised concerns and questions regarding the legitimacy of the exploits.[142]

Further questions were raised when independent investigators dug into the history of the company and analyzed the video they have uploaded to the web.[143] Ultimately, investigators uncovered an article by Viceroy Research condemning AMD on the exploit and noted how the article was published less than half an hour after the exploits were revealed. Given the polish of the article which appears to be written many days in advance, and wording of the article which suggests that it is financially motivated, many were quick to accuse the exploit as a smear campaign engineered by Viceroy to short-sell AMD's stocks.[144]

AMD had since announced that while the exploits are real, they are severely overplayed as physical access to the server is required to exploit the flaws. AMD has also announced that the flaws can be fixed via microcode updates and that they are working on a fix for the issue.[145]

See also

References

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External links