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Rodent mite dermatitis

Rodent mite dermatitis (also known as rat mite dermatitis) is an often unrecognized ectoparasitosis occurring after human contact with haematophagous mesostigmatid mites that infest rodents, such has house mice,[1] rats[2] and hamsters.[3] The condition is associated with the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti), spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina) and house mouse mite (Liponyssoides sanguineus)[4] which opportunistically feed on humans. Rodent mites are capable of surviving for long periods without feeding and travelling long distances when seeking hosts.[4] Cases have been reported in homes, libraries,[5] hospitals[6] and care homes.[7] A similar condition, known as gamasoidosis, is caused by avian mites.[8]

Symptoms

Rodent mite bites leave multiple groups or individual small itchy papules (around 1–2 mm in diameter)[7] on the skin (papular urticaria).[9][10] These are found mostly "on the upper extremities, neck, upper trunk and face".[7]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis requires species identification of the parasite, which will be likely to be found in the environment of its host rather than on the hosts’ skin.[10] Rodent mites are very small, for O. bacoti "female mites reach a size between 0.75 and 1.40 mm, males are a little smaller".[7]

Treatment

The original rodent host of the mites must be located and eradicated,[11] and their nests removed.[12] Steps should also be taken to prevent future infestations, such as by blocking the rodents means of entry into the building. The patient's environment should then be treated,[10] using both non-residual and residual insecticides, mites crawling in the open can be removed by vacuuming or with a cloth moistened with alcohol.[12]

Bites can be treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids, to relieve the associated itching and allergic reactions.[7]

Epidemiology

L. sanguineus has been implicated in the spread of Rickettsialpox.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Reeves, Will K.; Cobb, Kristin D. (2005-07-01). "Ectoparasites of House Mice (Mus musculus) from Pet Stores in South Carolina, U.S.A". Comparative Parasitology. 72 (2): 193–195. doi:10.1654/4178. ISSN 1525-2647.
  2. ^ Engel, Peter M.; Welzel, J.; Maass, M.; Schramm, U.; Wolff, H. H. (1998). "Tropical Rat Mite Dermatitis: Case Report and Review". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 27 (6): 1465–1469. doi:10.1086/515016. ISSN 1058-4838.
  3. ^ Creel, Naomi B.; Crowe, Mark A.; Mullen, Gary R. (2003). "Pet hamsters as a source of rat mite dermatitis". Cutis. 71 (6): 457–461. ISSN 0011-4162. PMID 12839256.
  4. ^ a b Watson, J. (2008-01-01). "New Building, Old Parasite: Mesostigmatid Mites--An Ever-Present Threat to Barrier Rodent Facilities". ILAR Journal. 49 (3): 303–309. doi:10.1093/ilar.49.3.303. ISSN 1084-2020.
  5. ^ Chung, Sang Lip; Hwang, Sung Joo; Kwon, Soon Baek; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Cho, Baik Kee (1998). "Outbreak of rat mite dermatitis in medical students". International Journal of Dermatology. 37 (8): 591–594. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.1998.00558.x. ISSN 0011-9059.
  6. ^ Haggard, Carl N. (1955-03-01). "Rat Mite Dermatitis in Children". Pediatrics. 15 (3): 322–324. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 14356805.
  7. ^ a b c d e Baumstark, J.; Beck, W.; Hofmann, H. (2007). "Outbreak of Tropical Rat Mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) Dermatitis in a Home for Disabled Persons". Dermatology. 215 (1): 66–68. doi:10.1159/000102037. ISSN 1018-8665. PMID 17587843.
  8. ^ Kowalska, M.; Kupis, B. (1976). "Gamasoidosis (gamasidiosis)-not infrequent skin reactions, frequently unrecognized". Polish Medical Sciences and History Bulletin. 15-16 (4): 391–394. ISSN 0301-0236. PMID 826895.
  9. ^ Engel, P. M.; Welzel, J.; Maass, M.; Schramm, U.; Wolff, H. H. (1998). "Tropical rat mite dermatitis: case report and review". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 27 (6): 1465–1469. doi:10.1086/515016. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 9868661.
  10. ^ a b c Beck, W. (2007-11-01). "Tropical Rat Mites as newly emerging disease pathogens in rodents and man". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 5 (6): 403. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2007.09.016. ISSN 1477-8939.
  11. ^ Fox, James G. (1982-09-01). "Outbreak of Tropical Rat Mite Dermatitis in Laboratory Personnel". Archives of Dermatology. 118 (9): 676. doi:10.1001/archderm.1982.01650210056019. ISSN 0003-987X.
  12. ^ a b "Parasitic Mites of Humans | Entomology". entomology.ca.uky.edu. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  13. ^ Azad, A. F.; Beard, C. B. (1998). "Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4 (2): 179–186. doi:10.3201/eid0402.980205. PMC 2640117. PMID 9621188.