Rockingham has no formal town center, instead town offices and the Rockingham Public Library are located in the village of Bellows Falls. The approximate center is the Rockingham Meeting House on Route 103, a popular east-west route across the state. The Meeting House was built in Rockingham Village, once the main settlement in the town, but with the increased use of water power, population shifted to other villages located on the two rivers in town. Most of what was left of Rockingham Village (over a dozen buildings, also called the Old Town) burned in a fire on April 14, 1908; the fire came close to the Meeting House but it was saved. The houses, hotel and store that burned were not rebuilt.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.3 square miles (109.6 km2), of which 41.9 square miles (108.5 km2) is land and 0.4 square mile (1.1 km2) (0.97%) is water. It is drained by the Williams River, the Saxtons River, and several brooks that drain directly to the Connecticut River; the latter river is the eastern boundary of Rockingham.
There were 2,202 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.0% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $33,423, and the median income for a family was $45,503. Males had a median income of $29,200 versus $22,944 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,051. About 4.8% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over.
Bellows Falls Neighborhood Historic District - Atkinson, Westminster, School, and Hapgood Sts., Hapgood Pl., and Burt St., Henry St., South St., Hadley St., and Temple Pl.; also Center, Front, Old Terrace, and Pine Sts., Bellows Falls (added January 17, 2002)
^Incorrect year listed for the fire (1909). Lovell, F.S, and L.C. Lovell. 1958. History of the Town of Rockingham, Vermont, including the villages of Bellows Falls, Saxtons River, Rockingham, Cambridgeport, and Bartonsville, 1907-1957, with family genealogies. Published by the town, Bellows Falls, VT.
Lovell, F.S. & Lovell, L.C. 1958. History of the Town of Rockingham, Vermont: Including the Villages of Bellows Falls, Saxtons River, Rockingham, Cambridgeport and Bartonsville, 1907 - 1957 with Family Genealogies. Bellows Falls, VT: Town of Rockingham, VT.