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Rettamalai Srinivasan

Rettamalai Srinivasan
R Srinivasan 2000 stamp of India.jpg
Srinivasan on a 2000 stamp of India
Born(1859-07-07)7 July 1859
Died18 September 1945(1945-09-18) (aged 86)
Occupationlawyer, journalist

R. Srinivasan (1859–1945), also known as Rettamalai Srinivasan, was a Scheduled Caste activist and politician from the then Madras Presidency of British India (now the Indian state of Tamil Nadu). He is a Paraiyar icon and was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi,[1] remembered today as one of the pioneers of the scheduled caste movement in India.[2]

Early life

Rettamalai Srinivasan was born in 1859 in a poor Tamil family in Madras Presidency.[3] He was a brother-in-law of the famous scheduled castes activist Iyothee Thass. He worked as a translator in a South African court when Gandhi was practicing there as an advocate; he was instrumental in the father of the nation putting his signature in Tamil as "Mo.Ka. Gandhi" (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in Tamil).[1][4]

Srinivasan established and led the Paraiyar Mahajana Sabha in 1891[5] which later became the Adi-Dravida Mahajana Sabha.[4][5] He founded a Tamil newspaper called Paraiyan in October 1893[4][6] which started selling as a monthly with four pages for the price of four annas.[7] However, Paraiyan experienced great difficulties in its early days.[citation needed]

Srinivasan was a participant in the freedom movement and an arrest warrant was issued against him claiming that he was fleeing the nation. In 1896, a case was filed against the newspaper and Srinivasan was dragged to the court citing a letter to the editor. The editor Srinivasan was fined Rs. 100 for his writings.[8]

Front page of the Tamil magazine Paraiyan launched by Rettamalai Srinivasan in 1893

Round Table Conference

Rettamalai Srinivasan memorial building, Gandhi Mandapam, Chennai.

Rettamalai Srinivasan represented the Paraiyars in the first two Round Table Conferences in London (1930 and 1931) along with B. R. Ambedkar.[9] In 1932, Ambedkar, M. C. Rajah and Rettamalai Srinivasan briefly joined the board of the Servants of Untouchables Society established by Gandhi[10] In 1939, with Ambedkar's support, he established the Madras Province Scheduled Castes' Federation.[9]


Statue of Rettamalai Srinivasan, Gandhi Mandapam, Chennai

Commemorative stamps have been issued in memory of Rettamalai Srinivasan by the Department of Posts of the Government of India.[11] Cadres of the Viduthalai Siruthaigal party claimed to have discovered the remains of the Paraiyar leader in Otteri and constructed a memorial over his mortal remains and named it Urimai Kalam.[5] On 6 July 2011, Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa had directed that his birth anniversary on 7 July be observed as a government function and ministers to honour him by garlanding his statue located inside Gandhi Mandapam, Chennai.[1]

His grandson B. Parameswaran became a minister in the Government of Tamil Nadu and a member of the Indian parliament.


  1. ^ a b c "`Govt to celebrate Rettamalai Srinivasan's birthday'". The Hindu. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  2. ^ Cotextualizing scheduled caste Movement in South India, Pg 10
  3. ^ Talisman, Pg xxvi
  4. ^ a b c Thirumavalavan, Pg 227
  5. ^ a b c Thirumavalavan, Pg 44
  6. ^ Talisman, Pg xxvii
  7. ^ Rajan, Nalini (2007). 21st Century Journalism in India. p. 66. ISBN 9780761935612.
  8. ^ Rajan, Nalini (2007). 21st Century Journalism in India. p. 70. ISBN 9780761935612.
  9. ^ a b Cotextualizing Dalit Movement in South India, Pg 29
  10. ^ A saga of long struggle – TAMIL NADU – The Hindu
  11. ^ "`No rules violated in stamp release function'". The Hindu. 19 August 2004. Retrieved 9 October 2008.


Further reading

  • Mohan, J. (2001). History of Dalit Struggle for Freedom: Dravidian Parties and Dalit Uprise in Tamil Nadu. Dhamma Institute of Social Sciences.
  • Mohan, Pullam Ethiraj (1993). Scheduled Castes, History of Elevation, Tamil Nadu, 1900–1955: History of Elevation, Tamil Nadu, 2000–2015. New Era Publications.