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|Retroflex lateral flap|
The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It has no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet, but may be represented as ⟨ɭ̆⟩ or with a dot diacritic as ⟨ɺ̣⟩.
Features of the retroflex flap:
|Kannada||ಕೇಳಿ||[keːɭ̆iː]||'to ask'||Can be an approximant [ɭ] instead.|
|Kobon||[example needed]||—||—||Subapical. Written ⟨ƚ⟩.|
|Malayalam||വേളി||[veːɭ̆iː]||'marriage'||Can be an approximant [ɭ] instead.|
|Marathi||केळी||[keɭ̆iː]||'bananas'||See Marathi phonology|
|Miyakoan||Some dialects||[example needed]||—||—|
|Norwegian||Trøndersk||glas||[ˈɡɺ̠ɑːs]||'glass'||Apical postalveolar; also described as central [ɽ]. See Norwegian phonology|
|O'odham||[example needed]||—||—||Apical postalveolar.|
|Odia||ସକାଳ||[sɔkaɭ̆ɔ]||'morning'||Can be an approximant [ɭ] instead.|
|Pashto||ړوند||[ɭ̆und]||'blind'||Contrasts plain and nasalized flaps. Tend to be lateral at the beginning of a prosodic unit, and a central flap [ɽ] or approximant [ɻ] elsewhere.|
|Tamil||குளி||[ˈkuɭ̆i]||'bathe'||Allophone of /ɭ/. See Tamil phonology|
|Totoli||[example needed]||—||—||Allophone of /ɺ/ after back vowels.|
|Tukang Besi||[example needed]||—||—||Possible allophone of /l/ after back vowels, as well as an allophone of /r/.|
A retroflex lateral flap has been reported from various languages of Sulawesi such as the Sangiric languages, Buol and Totoli, as well as Nambikwara in Brazil (plain and laryngealized), Gaagudju in Australia, Purépecha in Mexico, Moro in Sudan, O'odham and Mohawk in the United States, Chaga in Tanzania, and Kanuri in Nigeria.
Various Dravidian and Indic languages of India are reported to have a retroflex lateral flap, either phonemically or phonetically, including Gujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Odia, and Rajasthani. Masica describes the sound as widespread in the Indic languages of India:
A retroflex flapped lateral /ḷ/, contrasting with ordinary /l/, is a prominent feature of Odia, Marathi–Konkani, Gujarati, most varieties of Rajasthani and Bhili, Punjabi, some dialects of "Lahnda", ... most dialects of West Pahari, and Kumauni (not in the Southeastern dialect described by Apte and Pattanayak), as well as Hariyanvi and the Saharanpur subdialect of Northwestern Kauravi ("Vernacular Hindustani") investigated by Gumperz. It is absent from most other NIA languages, including most Hindi dialects, Nepali, Garhwali, Bengali, Assamese, Kashmiri and other Dardic languages (except for the Dras dialect of Shina and possibly Khowar), the westernmost West Pahari dialects bordering Dardic (Bhalesi, Khashali, Rudhari, Padari) as well as the easternmost (Jaunsari, Sirmauri), and from Sindhi, Kacchi, and Siraiki. It was once present in Sinhalese, but in the modern language has merged with /l/.