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|Populations||206,195 (Altai Republic) – 4,072,102 (Bashkortostan)|
|Areas||3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi) (Ingushetia) – 3,287,590 km2 (1,269,350 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)|
|Subdivisions||administrative: districts, cities and towns of republic significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements|
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics". Most of the republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity, although there are several republics with Russian majority. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, each nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.
Republics differ from other federal subjects of Russia in that they have the right to establish their own official language and have their own constitution. Other federal subjects, such as krais (territories) and oblasts (provinces), are not explicitly given this right. The chief executives of many republics used to have the title of president, but in 2010 an amendment to the federal law was adopted that reserves such title exclusively for the head of the Russian state.
The level of actual autonomy granted to such political units varies but is generally quite extensive. The parliamentary assemblies of such republics have often enacted laws which are at odds with the federal constitution. The republics' executives tend to be very powerful. However, this autonomy was lessened considerably under Russian President Vladimir Putin, who sought to impose the supremacy of the federal constitution. Over the course of Putin's presidency, autonomy agreements signed between the federal government and republics after the collapse of the Soviet Union have all gradually expired. On July 24, 2017, Tatarstan became the last republic to lose its special status. The diminishing status of Russia's ethnic republics has been a cause of growing concern among its minorities in the country. In 2017, Vladimir Putin condemned mandatory lessons of minority languages in the republics and on 19 June 2018, the State Duma approved the first reading of a bill regarding the teaching of these languages, which instructed schools to reduce the instruction of minority languages to only two hours a week. Many republics subsequently dropped the teaching of minority languages to become optional.
The establishment of eight large "federal districts" above the regions and republics of Russia, with presidentially appointed governors overseeing the republics' activities, has strengthened federal control, and respect for federal supremacy in the republics. In addition, Putin strengthened the position of the republics' legislatures, while weakening their executives' power. In some republics the executive heads are elected by popular votes/for example Bashkortostan, Tatarstan etc./ while in some republics the executive heads of republics are now appointed by the President of Russia himself /for example Chechnya/. The President's nomination must be accepted by the republic's parliament. On May 30, 2014, the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, accepted Khamitov's resignation so that he could participate in the regional elections; On September 14, 2014, most of the votes (82.17%) were given to the acting head of republic by the citizens of the Bashkortostan Republic; On September 25, 2015, the inauguration process took place in the State Council-Kurultay of the Bashkortostan Republic.
There are secessionist movements in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. However, there was considerable support for secession among Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, and Chechens after the breakup of the Soviet Union, resulting in war in the case of Chechnya. The desire for secession in many republics is, however, greatly complicated by the extent to which other ethnic groups reside in their titular republics (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, and Sakha; due to the First and Second Chechen Wars, very few non-Chechens now reside in Chechnya.) Also, the majority of Tatars, unlike other titular ethnic groups, reside outside Tatarstan.
On March 18, 2014, the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol after a contested referendum were annexed to the Russian Federation. Much of the international community and the Ukrainian government do not recognize Crimea's accession to Russia and consider Crimea an integral part of Ukraine.
The Russian SFSR of the former Soviet Union included three types of ethnic constituent units, viz., in the order of decreasing "autonomy" level: Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (or simply autonomous republics), autonomous oblasts, and autonomous okrugs.
After the dissolution of the USSR, each "autonomous republic" was succeeded by a republic with a similar name (or, in the case of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, by two republics: Chechnya and Ingushetia). Several "autonomous oblasts" (Adygea, Altai, Karachay–Cherkessia, Khakassia) have become "republics" as well.
The expression "autonomous republic" is still sometimes used for the republics of Russia. Although they are autonomous and republics, the use of this term is not technically correct, since their official names, as per 1993 Russian Constitution and their own constitutions, are simply "republic", rather than "autonomous republic".
|Flag||Republic||Continent||Capital||Titular nationality1||Titular nationality in Republic's population (2010)||Titular nationality: Language group||Titular nationality: Main religion||Ethnic Russians in Republic's population (2010)||Population (2010)4|
|Adygea (Адыгея, Адыгэ)||Europe||Maykop||Adyghe||25.2%||Caucasian||Orthodox Christianity, Sunni Islam||63.6%||440,388|
|Altai (Алтай)||Asia||Gorno-Altaysk||Altai||34.5%||Turkic||Burkhanism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, Orthodox Christianity||56.6%||206,195|
|Bashkortostan (Башкортостан, Башкирия, Башҡортостан)||Europe||Ufa||Bashkir||29.5%||Turkic||Sunni Islam||36.1%||4,072,102|
|Buryatia (Бурятия, Буряад)||Asia||Ulan-Ude||Buryat||30.0%||Mongolic||Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism; tiny Russian Orthodox minority known as Onghols, often considered separate ethnic group||66.1%||972,658|
|Chechnya (Чеченская Республика, Нохчийчоь)||Europe||Grozny||Chechen2||95.3%||Caucasian||Sunni Islam, Sufi-oriented Sunni Islam||1.9%||1,103,686|
|Chuvashia (Чувашская Республика, Чăваш Республики)||Europe||Cheboksary||Chuvash||67.7%||Turkic||Russian Orthodox, Islam, shamanism||26.9%||1,251,599|
|Crimea (Крым)||Europe||Simferopol||Crimean Tatar||10.6%7||Turkic||Orthodox Christianity, Islam||67.9%7||2,284,769|
|Dagestan (Дагестан)||Europe||Makhachkala||10 indigenous nationalities3||88.0%||Caucasian, Turkic5||Sunni Islam, Judaism (if Mountain Jews and Jewish Tats are considered)||3.6%||2,576,531|
|Ingushetia (Ингушетия, ГӀалгӀай Мохк)||Europe||Magas||Ingush2||94.1%||Caucasian||Sunni Islam, Sufi-oriented Sunni Islam||0.8%||467,294|
|Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика, Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр, Къабарты-Малкъар)||Europe||Nalchik||Kabardin, Balkar||69.9% (Kabardin 57.2%, Balkar 12.7%)||Caucasian (Kabardin), Turkic (Balkar)||Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodox6||22.5%||859,802|
|Kalmykia (Калмыкия, Хальмг Таңһч)||Europe||Elista||Kalmyk||57.4%||Mongolic||Tibetan Buddhism||30.2%||289,464|
|Karachay-Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская Республика)||Europe||Cherkessk||Karachay, Cherkess||52.9% (Karachay 41.0%, Cherkess 11.9%)||Turkic (Karachay), Caucasian (Cherkess)||Sunni Islam||31.6%||478,517|
|Karelia (Карелия, Karjala)||Europe||Petrozavodsk||Karelian||7.4%||Uralic||Russian Orthodox||82.2%||643,548|
|Khakassia (Хакасия)||Asia||Abakan||Khakas||12.1%||Turkic||Shamanism, Russian Orthodox||81.7%||532,403|
|Komi (Коми)||Europe||Syktyvkar||Komi||23.7%||Uralic||Russian Orthodox, shamanism||65.1%||901,189|
|Mari El (Марий Эл)||Europe||Yoshkar-Ola||Mari||43.9%||Uralic||Russian Orthodox, indigenous pagan faith, Marla faith||47.4%||696,357|
|Mordovia (Мордовия)||Europe||Saransk||Mordvin||40.0%||Uralic||Russian Orthodox||53.4%||834,819|
|North Ossetia-Alania (Северная Осетия-Алания, Цӕгат Ирыстоны Аланийы)||Europe||Vladikavkaz||Ossetian||65.1%||Iranian||Eastern Orthodox, Sunni minority||20.8%||712,877|
|Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия))||Asia||Yakutsk||Yakut||49.9%||Turkic||Russian Orthodox, Shamanism||37.8%||958,291|
|Tatarstan (Татарстан, Tatar: Cyrillic Татарстан, Latin Tatarstan)||Europe||Kazan||Tatar||53.2%||Turkic||Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodox||39.7%||3,786,358|
|Tuva (Тыва, Тува)||Asia||Kyzyl||Tuvan||82.0%||Turkic||Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, tiny Russian Orthodox minority||16.3%||307,930|
|Udmurtia (Удмуртская Республика, Удмурт Элькун)||Europe||Izhevsk||Udmurt||28.0%||Uralic||Russian Orthodox||62.2%||1,522,761|
|Ethnic group||Titular (%)||Russians (%)||other (%)|
There were several attempts to establish republics within Russia since 1991:
Media related to Republics of Russia at Wikimedia Commons