Ravana

"Ravan" and "Ravanan" redirect here. For other uses, see Ravan (disambiguation).
Ravana
रावण
Ravana
Statue of Ravana from 18th century CE
Created by Valmiki
Information
Nickname(s) Dashagriva or Dashanana (Ten-headed)
Title King of Lanka
Family Vishrava (father), Kaikesi (mother)
Spouse(s) Mandodari, Dhanyamalini
Children Indrajit
Atikaya
Akshayakumara
Narantaka
Devantaka
Trishira
Prahasta
Mythic king of Lanka
Predecessor Kubera
Successor Vibhishana

Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa; /ˈrɑːvənə/; Sanskrit: रावन्)[1] is the mythical primary antagonist in the Hindu epic Ramayana, where he is depicted as the king of Lanka.[a]

Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads and as a follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the veena, but someone who wished to overpower the devas. His ten heads represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas. In the Ramayana, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita to exact vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of his sister Shurpanakha.

Ravana is also worshipped in several part of India, Sri Lanka and Bali - Indonesia. He is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places.[citation needed]

Etymology

Statue of Ravana at Koneswaram Temple, Sri Lanka.

The word Rāvaṇa (Sanskrit: रावण) means roaring opposite of Vaiśravaṇa meaning "hear distinctly" (passive).[2][3] Both Ravana and Vaiśravaṇa, who is popularly known as Kubera, are considered to be patronymics derived as sons of Vishrava.[2][3][4][5]

According to F. E. Pargiter the word may originally have been a Sanskritisation of Iraivan, the Tamil name for a lord or king.[6]

Ravana has many other popular names such as Dasis Ravana, Dasis Sakvithi Maha Ravana, Dashaanan, Ravula, Lankeshwar, Lankeshwaran, Ravanaeshwaran, Eela Vendhar.[7] All of these signify qualities of his life.

Iconography

Ravana is thought to be a maestro of the veena

Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads, although sometimes he is shown with only nine heads because he has sacrificed a head to convince Shiva. He is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena. Ravana is also depicted as the author of the Ravana Samhita, a book on Hindu astrology and book Arka Prakasham; book on Siddha medicine and treatment . Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of Siddha and political science. He is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, which was stored inside his belly, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma.[8][page needed]

Depiction in the Ramayana

Birth

Kubera Ravana's Brother, Lord of Wealth and the North-direction
Brahma-Ravana's great grand father.
Vibhishana(right-brother of Ravana),SriRama and Sita worship god Shiva at Rameshwaram looks on with Lakshamana, Tumburu and Narada

Ravana was one of several children born to the great sage Vishrava (or Vesamuni), and his wife, the daitya princess Kaikesi.

Ravana's grandfather, the sage Pulastya, was one of the ten Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the first Manvantara. Kaikesi's father, Sumali (or Sumalaya), king of the Daityas, wished her to marry the most powerful being in the mortal world, so as to produce an exceptional heir. He rejected the kings of the world, as they were less powerful than him. Kaikesi searched among the sages and finally chose Vishrava, the father of Kubera. Ravana was a Daitya or Rakshasa. Ravana later usurped Lanka from his half-brother Kubera and became the King of Lanka and became a Kshatriya thereon. Rama had once addressed Ravana as a "Maha Brahman" ("Great Brahman" in the context of his education).

The Ramayana tells that Ravana had close connections with region of the Yadus, which included Gujarat, parts of Maharashtra and Rajasthan up to Mathura, south of Delhi. Ravana is believed to be related to Lavanasura, also regarded as a Rakshasa, of Madhupura (Mathura) in the region of the Surasenas, who was conquered and killed by Shatrughna, the youngest brother of Rama.[citation needed]

After worshipping Shiva on the banks of the Narmada, in the more central Yadu region, Ravana was captured and held under the control of king Kartavirya Arjuna, one of the greatest Yadu kings. It is clear from the references in the Ramayana that Ravana was no commoner among the Humans or Asuras, a great chanter of the Sama Veda.

Tapasya to Brahma

Following his initial training, Ravana performed an intense penance (or tapasya) to Brahma, lasting several years. During his penance, Ravana chopped off his head ten times as a sacrifice to appease him. Each time he sliced his head off a new head arose, thus enabling him to continue his penance. At last, Brahma, pleased with his austerity, appeared after his tenth decapitation and offered him a boon. Ravana asked for immortality, which Brahma refused to give; in place of this, he asked for absolute invulnerability from and supremacy over gods, heavenly spirits, other rakshasas, serpents, and wild beasts. Contemptuous of mortal men, he did not ask for protection from these. Brahma granted him these boons in addition to his ten severed heads and great strength by way of knowledge of divine weapons and magic. Thus Ravana is also known as Dasamukha or Dashaanan (Dasa being ten, mukha/anan being face). Later, after learning from Ravana's mother (who can see fortune) Ravana's wife Mandodri brings him the nectar of immortality by suffering great hardships.

King of Lanka

After winning these boons, Ravana sought out his grandfather, Sumali, and assumed leadership over his army. He then set his sights on capturing the island city of Lanka.

Lanka was an idyllic city, created by the celestial architect Vishwakarma for Shiva and acquired by Kubera, the treasurer of the gods upon advice of his father Visravas. Visrava had asked for Lanka made from gold from Shiva as dakshina for the house warming ceremony he had conducted for Lanka. Kubera had generously shared all that he owned with Ravana and the latter's siblings, who were Kubera's half-brothers and half-sister from his stepmother Kaikesi. However, Ravana demanded Lanka wholly from him, threatening to take it by force. Vishrava, their father, advised Kubera to give it up to him, as Ravana was now undefeatable.

Although Ravana usurped Lanka, he was nevertheless regarded as a benevolent and effective ruler. Lanka flourished under his rule, to the extent that it is said the poorest of houses had vessels of gold to eat and drink off, and hunger was unknown in the kingdom.

Devotee of Shiva

See also: Ravananugraha
Ravananugraha theme.

Following his conquest of Lanka, Ravana encountered Shiva at his abode in Kailash. Ravana at first went to meet Shiva. Nandi the vehicle of Shiva, refused to let Ravana in. He got annoyed and started teasing Nandi. Nandi in turn got annoyed and cursed Ravana that Lanka would be destroyed by a monkey. To show Nandi his love for Shiva, Ravana attempted to uproot and move the mountain on a whim. Shiva, annoyed by Ravana's arrogance, pressed his littlest toe on Kailash, pinning him firmly and painfully under it. His ganas informed Ravana of whom he had crossed, upon which Ravana became penitent. He plucked his nerves and used them as strings to compose music and sang songs praising Shiva, and is said to have done so for years until Shiva released him from his bondage.

Pleased with his resilience and devotion, Shiva gave to him the divine sword Chandrahas (Chandra-Moon, Has-laugh, literally 'the laughter of the moon' but referring to the shape formed by a crescent moon which resembles a smile). It was during this incident that he acquired the name 'Ravana', meaning "(He) Of the terrifying roar", given to him by Shiva – the earth is said to have quaked at Ravana's cry of pain when the mountain was pinned on him. Ravana in turn became a lifelong devotee of Shiva and is said to have composed the hymn known as Shiva Tandava Stotra.

Shiva had given his sword Chandrahasa with a warning that if it was used for unjust causes, it would return to the three-eyed one and Ravana's days would be numbered.[9] After Ravana had been given the Celestial Nectar of Immortality by Brahma, he went on to please Shiva. He cut his head & put it as sacrifice for pleasing Shiva, but Shiva replaced his head with a new one. This was repeated Nine times, on which Shiva was happy and pleased with Ravana's resilience and devotion.

Emperor of the Three Worlds

Ravana in Sanskrit drama of Kerala, India- Kutiyattam. Artist: Guru Nātyāchārya Māni Mādhava Chākyār[10]

His abilities now truly awe-inspiring, Ravana proceeded on a series of campaigns, conquering humans, celestials and other demons. Conquering the netherworld completely, he left his brother Ahiravana as king. He became supreme overlord of all Asuras in the three worlds, making an alliance with the Nivatakavachas and Kalakeyas, two clans he was unable to subdue. Conquering several kingdoms of the human world, he performed the suitable sacrifices and was crowned Emperor. Ravana defeated Indra and the gods, Surya, Varuna and Yama.

Kubera at one point chastised Ravana for his cruelty and greed, greatly angering him. Proceeding to the heavens, Ravana fought and defeated the devas, singling out his brother for particular humiliation. By force he gained command over the devas, celestials, and the serpent races. At the time of the Ramayana, set several years later, Ravana is shown as dominating all human and divine races – so much so that he can command the sun's rising and setting.

Depiction in other Scriptures, as Vishnu's cursed doorkeeper

In the Bhagavata Purana, Ravana and his brother, Kumbhakarna, were said to be reincarnations of Jaya and Vijaya, gatekeepers at Vaikuntha, the abode of Vishnu and were cursed to be born in Earth for their insolence.

These gatekeepers refused entry to the Sanatha Kumara monks, who, because of their powers and austerity appeared as young children. For their insolence, the monks cursed them to be expelled from Vaikuntha and to be born on Earth.

Vishnu agreed that they should be punished. They were given two choices, that they could be born seven times as normal mortals and devotees of Vishnu, or three times as powerful and strong people, but as enemies of Vishnu. Eager to be back with the Lord, they choose the latter one. Ravana and his brother Kumbhakarna were born to fulfill the curse on the second birth as enemies of Vishnu in the Treta Yuga. The curse of first birth was fulfilled by Hiranyakashipu and his brother Hiranyaksha in Satya Yuga when they were both vanquished by earlier avatars of Vishnu (Hiranyaksha by Varaha and Hiranyakashipu by Narasimha) and the curse of third birth was fulfilled by Dantavakra and Shishupala in the Dwapar Yuga when they both were slain by Krishna, the eighth avatar.

Ravana's family

Queen Mandodari and the women of Lanka mourning the death of Ravana. Bas-relief of 9th century Prambanan temple, Java, Indonesia

Ravana's family are hardly mentioned outside the Ramayana, which is viewed by some as being only the point of view of Rama devotees. According to that:

  • Ravana's grandfather was Malyavan, who was against the war with Rama.
  • Ravana's parents were Vishrava (son of Pulastya) and Kaikesi (daughter of Sumali and Thataka). Kaikesi had two brothers Maricha and Subahu which would effectively make them Ravana's uncles.
  • Ravana had six brothers and two sisters:
  1. Kubera – the King of North direction and the Guardian of Heavenly Wealth. He was an older half-brother of Ravana: they were born to the same father by different mothers.
  2. Vibhishana – A great follower of Rama and one of the most important characters in the Ramayana. As a minister and brother of Ravana, he spoke the truth without fear and advised Ravana to return the kidnapped Sita and uphold Dharma. Ravana not only rejected this sane advice, but also banished him from his kingdom. Vibhishana sought protection from Rama, which was granted without hesitation.
  3. Kumbhakarna – One of the most jovial demons in Hindu history. When offered a boon by Brahma, he was tricked into asking for eternal sleep. A horrified Ravana, out of brotherly love, persuaded Brahma to amend the boon. Brahma mitigated the power of the boon by making Kumbhakarna sleep for six months and being awake for rest six months of a year (in some versions, he is awake for one day out of the year). During the war with Rama, Kumbhakarna was untimely awakened from his sleep. He tried to persuade Ravana to open negotiations with Rama and return Sita to him. But he too failed to mend the ways of Ravana. However, bound by a brother's duty, he fought on the side of Ravana and was killed in the battlefield. Before dying he met Vibhishana and blessed him for following path of righteousness.
  4. Khara – King of Janasthan.[11] He protected the northern kingdom of Lanka in the mainland and his kingdom bordered with the Kosala Kingdom, the kingdom of Rama. He was well known for his superior skills in warfare.he was killed by Rama.
  5. Dushana – Viceroy of Janasthan.
  6. Ahiravan – King of the Underworld ruled by the rakshasas by Ravana and the demon king Maya.
  7. Kumbhini – Older sister of Ravana and the wife of the demon Madhu, King of Mathura, she was the mother of Lavanasura. She was renowned for her beauty and later retired to the sea for penance.
  8. Surpanakha – The sister of Ravana. She was the ultimate root of the kidnapping of Sita. She was the one who instigated her brothers to wage a war against Rama.
  • Ravana was married to Mandodari, the daughter of the celestial architect Maya, Dhanyamalini, and a third wife. He had seven sons from his three wives:
  1. Meghnaad (also known as Indrajit because he defeated Lord Indra), the most powerful son
  2. Atikaya
  3. Akshayakumara
  4. Devantaka
  5. Narantaka
  6. Trishira
  7. Prahastha

Historicity

According to the Uttra Kanda section of Ramayana, the Rakshasa (also known as Raksha) clan were the mythical inhabitants of Lanka who were said to have lived among the Naga, Yakkha and Deva. They were led by Malyavantha, Sumali and Sukesha of the Raksha, who were ousted by the Deva with the help of Vishnu, and then subsequently ruled by Ravana.[12]

The Raksha vanish from history after their mention in the Ramayana, except in Sri Lankan folk stories.[13] European scholars consider the story of Ravana and the Raksha to have been made in historic times, due to the knowledge of Sri Lankan locations mentioned in the stories, and therefore the story is considered not to be based on fact.[13] The Mahavansa also makes no mention of a great Raskha civilization and there is no archaeological evidence suggesting a civilization ruled by Ravana existed.[14]

Ravana temples and temples related with Ravana

Thotsakan (Ravana)'s sculpture as a guardian of Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand

There are several temples where Ravana is worshipped.[15][16][17] Ravana is considered most revered devotee of Shiva. The images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places.

Ravana Mandir, Bisrakh, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

There is a huge Shivalinga in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India. supposedly installed by Ravana himself, with a statue of Ravana near by. Both Shivalinga and Ravana are worshiped by the fishermen community there.

Thousands of Kanyakubja Brahmins of the village Ravangram of Netaran, in the Vidisha District of Madhya Pradesh, perform daily puja (worship) in the Ravan temple and offer naivedyam / bhog (a ritual of sacrifice to the Gods). Centuries ago King Shiv Shankar built a Ravana temple at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. The Ravana temple is opened once in a year, on Dashehra Day, to perform puja for the welfare of Ravana.

Ravana is said to have married Princess Mandodari at a place Mandsaur in Madhya Pradesh, India. This is so because in Mandsaur, Ravana is worshiped.

The Dave Brahmins of Mudgal Gotra, Jodhpur/Mandor who were originally from Gujarat, India claim to be the descendants of Ravana. The say that since time immemorial they are performing the shraddh (death anniversary) of Ravana on Dashehra Day every year. They offer pind daan and take a bath after that ritual. They recently erected a Ravan temple in Jodhpur, India where daily puja is performed.

Koneswaram temple, then-Dakshina Kailasam is a classical-medieval Hindu temple complex in Trincomalee, a Hindu religious pilgrimage centre in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. This temples is associated with Ravana and his mother. They had worshiped Shiva at the shrine.

Kanniya Hot water spring in Sri Lanka has the history from the time of Ravana. It says that Ravana stuck the earth with his sword in several spots for his mother's funeral event and several fountains were started on those places. The water was hot and it is now a tourist attraction in Sri Lanka.

Ravana-Dahan (burning effigy of Ravana)

An Effigy of Ravana with burning sparklers on Dusshera. Dashehra Diwali Mela in Manchester, England, 2006.

Effigies of Ravana are burned on Vijayadashami, in India at many places. It is said that it is symbolisation of triumph over evil (i.e. Ravana) by Rama.

Ravanahatha

The ancient instrument known as a Ravanahatha is said to have belonged to a sovereign in present-day India around 5000 BC. It replicates the ancient instrument called Ravan Hatta which is found even today in Rajasthan. Mythology credits this creation to Ravana.

Influence on Indian culture and art

Ravana with Hanuman in Tholu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of Andhra Pradesh, India

A Ramleela actor wears the traditional attire of Ravana. One of the most important literary works of ancient India, the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

Jain version

Further information: Salakapurusa

Jain accounts vary from the Hindu accounts of Ramayana. The incidents are placed at the time of the 20th Tirthankara, Munisuvrata. According to Jain version, both Rama as well as Ravana were devout Jains.[18] Ravana was a Vidyadhara King having magical powers.[19] Also, as per the Jain accounts, Ravana was killed by Lakshmana and not Rama in the end.[20]

On television

Year TV Series Channel Country Played by
1987 Ramayan (TV series) DD National India Arvind Trivedi
1997 Jai Hanuman (TV series) DD National India Anil Yadav
2002 Vishnu Puran (TV series) Zee TV and DD National India Nimai Bali
2003 Ramayan (2003) (TV series) Zee TV India Surinder Paul Singh
2006 Raavan (TV series) Zee TV India Paras Arora/Narendra Jha
2008 Ramayan (2008 TV series) NDTV Imagine India Akhilendra Mishra
2012 Ramayan (2012 TV series) Zee TV India Sachin Tyagi
2015 Sankatmochan Mahabali Hanuman Sony Entertainment Television India Aarya Babbar
2015 Siya Ke Ram Star Plus India Karthik Jayaram

References

Notes

  1. ^ Identified by many with modern-day Sri Lanka

Citations

  1. ^ "Ravana". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b Aiyangar Narayan (1909) "Essays On Indo-Aryan Mythology-Vol.", p.413
  3. ^ a b MW Sanskrit Digital Dictionary p. 1026
  4. ^ The Ramayana Of Valmiki (Vol.2) Ayodhyakanda An Epic Of Ancient India
  5. ^ Hopkins, Edward Washburn (1915). Epic mythology. Strassburg K.J. Trübner. p. 142. 
  6. ^ [books.google.no]
  7. ^ "Early Tamils of Ilangai". Scribd. Retrieved 2016-04-04. 
  8. ^ Ramayana By Valmiki; Ramcharitmas by Tulsidasa (Lanka Kanda Vibhishana & Rama Samvaad)
  9. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 81. 
  10. ^ Māni Mādhava Chākyār (1996). Nātyakalpadrumam. Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi. p.6
  11. ^ [1] Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Ramayana Research. (2008). A Short History Of Heladiva. Available: [ramayanaresearch.com]. Last accessed 14 March 2010.
  13. ^ a b H. Parker (1909). Ancient Ceylon. New Dehli: Asian Educational Services. 7.
  14. ^ H.R Perera. (1988). Buddhism in Sri Lanka - A short history. Available: [www.buddhanet.net]. Last accessed 02 10 10.
  15. ^ Ravana has his temples, too. The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum. 21 October 2007.
  16. ^ Vachaspati.S, Ravana Brahma [in English], 2005, Rudrakavi Sahitya Peetham, Gandhi Nagar, Tenali, India.
  17. ^ Kamalesh Kumar Dave,Dashanan [in Hindi], 2008, Akshaya Jyotish Anusandan Kendra, Quila Road, Jodhpur, India.
  18. ^ Sharma, S.R. (1940), Jainism and Karnataka Culture, Dharwar: Karnatak Historical Research Society, p. 76 
  19. ^ Dalal, Roshen (2010), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, India: Penguin Books, p. 338 
  20. ^ Ramanujan, A.K. (1991), "Three hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five examples and Three thoughts on Translation", in Paula Richman, Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia, University of California Press, p. 35, ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4 

Bibliography

External links

Preceded by
Kubera
Emperor of Lanka Succeeded by
Vibhisana