City of waterfalls
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Asha Lakra (BJP)|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Metropolis||652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)|
|Elevation||651 m (2,136 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,300/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||JH-01 (earlier BR 14)|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
Ranchi (// pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
The name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rinchi" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise" the bird was considered as to be a sacred bird. Upto 1927, the place was known as Rachi. 'Rici' is name for Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Mundari, the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru (रिचि बुरु) - the hill of the kites, and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site. The entire administration of SWFA was run from Commissioner's office situated at the foothill of Rici Buru.
According to Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi.
The early evidence of use of several iron slag, pot sheds, iron tools found in Chota Nagpur region around 1400 BCE.  Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to the Deccan. After the decline of the Guptas, the Nagvanshi dynasty ruled in the region. The Nagvanshi built several palaces and temples in Sutiambe, Pithoria, Khukhragarh. With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nagvanshi dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently. King of Barkagarh Jagannathpur Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo built Jagannath Temple in 1691.
After Battle of Buxar, Nagvanshi became vassal of East India Company. British reduced Nagvanshi rulers to Jamindar in 1817. The British established a civil headquarters in Rachi, military headquarters of Ramgarh Battalion at Doronda by Thomas Wilkison. Later German missionaries established a church. Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai, Tikait Umrao Singh and Sheikh Bhikhari played a pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Freedom fighter Birsa Munda died in the Ranchi jail on 9 June 1900. Last ruler of the Nagvanshi dynasty was Lal Chintamani Sharan Nath Shahdeo (1931 – 2014). After the formation of the state of Jharkhand, Ranchi became its capital.
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas (Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||9.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||16.7
As of 2011[update] India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68%.
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Hindi is the official language of Ranchi. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. Nagpuri is native language of the region. A number of other dialects and language spoken are Khortha and Kurmali. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by the Munda tribe.
Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that did not state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ranchi.|