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Circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state, term formulated by Indian author Chanakya
The Rajamandala (or Raja-mandala meaning "circle of kings";मण्डल, mandala is a Sanskrit word that means "circle") was formulated by the Indian author Chanakya (Kautilya) in his work on politics, the Arthashastra (written between 4th century BCE and 2nd century CE). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's (raja) state.
The term draws a comparison with the mandala of the Hindu and Buddhistworldview; the comparison emphasises the radiation of power from each power center, as well as the non-physical basis of the system.
^Torkel Brekke (2006), "Between Prudence and Heroism: Ethics of war in the Hindu tradition", The Ethics of War in Ancient Asia, Routledge, p. 124 Kulke; Rothermund (2004), A History of India, p. 350 Upinder Singh (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Longman, p. 349
^Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. World Conqueror and World Renouncer : A Study of Buddhism and Polity in Thailand against a Historical Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. ISBN0-521-29290-5. Chapter 7, cited in Lieberman, Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context c. 800-1830. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003-2009 ISBN978-0521804967. P. 33