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Qiuliju (fl. 180s–190s) was a leader of the Wuhuan tribes in Liaoxi Commandery (遼西郡; commandery capital in present-day Yi County, Liaodong) during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He had about 5,000 tribal clans under his rule.[1]


Around 187, the Han minister Zhang Wen recruited 3,000 Wuhuan elite cavalry from You Province to assist Han government forces in suppressing the Liang Province Rebellion. Zhang Chun (張純), a former official serving in Zhongshan Princedom (中山國), requested to be appointed as the commander of the Wuhuan cavalry. Zhang Wen denied his request and put Gongsun Zan in charge of the cavalry instead. However, when the Wuhuan cavalry reached Ji (薊; around present-day Beijing), many of them deserted and went home because of lack of supplies. Zhang Chun felt disgruntled when his request was denied, so he secretly formed an alliance with Zhang Ju (張舉), a former Administrator of Taishan Commandery (泰山郡), and the Wuhuan leader Qiuliju. The three of them combined forces to start a rebellion by attacking and plundering Ji. They also killed a colonel Gongqi Chou (公綦稠), Youbeiping Commandery's Administrator Liu Zheng (劉政), Liaodong Commandery's Administrator Yang Zhong (陽終), and others. Their forces numbered over 100,000 troops and were based in Feiru County (肥如縣; east of present-day Qian'an, Hebei). Zhang Ju declared himself emperor to challenge the reigning Han emperor, Emperor Ling, for the Mandate of Heaven.[2]

Zhang Chun and his rebel forces raided and plundered several Han territories in Qing, Xu, You and Ji provinces, killing thousands of Han officials and civilians. Towards the end of Emperor Ling's reign, when Liu Yu took office as the Governor of You Province, he recruited the tribal peoples in northeast China to assist him in suppressing the rebellion. Liu Yu was successful; Zhang Chun was killed and peace was restored in the region.[3]

When Qiuliju died, his son Louban (樓班) was still young, so he was succeeded by a younger relative, Tadun, who became the new leader of the Wuhuan tribes.[4]

See also


  1. ^ (漢末,遼西烏丸大人丘力居,衆五千餘落, ... 各稱王, ... 皆有計策勇健。) Sanguozhi vol. 30.
  2. ^ (初,張溫發幽州烏桓突騎三千以討涼州,故中山相漁陽張純請將之,溫不聽,而使涿令遼西公孫瓚將之。軍到薊中,烏桓以牢稟逋縣,多叛還本國。張純忿不得將,乃與同郡故泰山太守張舉及烏桓大人丘力居等連盟,劫略薊中,殺護烏桓校尉公綦稠、右北平太守劉政、遼東太守陽終等,衆至十餘萬,屯肥如。舉稱天子,純稱彌天將軍、安定王,移書州郡,云舉當代漢,告天子避位,敕公卿奉迎。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 58.
  3. ^ (中山太守張純叛入丘力居衆中,自號彌天安定王,為三郡烏丸元帥,寇略青、徐、幽、兾四州,殺略吏民。靈帝末,以劉虞為幽州牧,募胡斬純首,北州乃定。) Sanguozhi vol. 30.
  4. ^ (後丘力居死,子樓班年小,從子蹋頓有武略,代立,總攝三王部,衆皆從其教令。) Sanguozhi vol. 30.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.
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