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Pygela

Pygela (Ancient Greek: Πύγελα) or Phygela (Φύγελα) was a small town of ancient Ionia, on the coast of the Caystrian Bay, a little to the south of Ephesus. According to Greek mythology, it was said to have been founded by Agamemnon, and to have been peopled with the remnants of his army; it contained a temple of Artemis Munychia.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Dioscorides commends the wine of this town.[7] It was a polis (city-state) and a member of the Delian League.[8] Silver and bronze coins dated to the 4th century BCE bearing the legends «ΦΥΓΑΛΕΩΝ» or «ΦΥΓ» are attributed to the town.[8]

Harpocration wrote that according to Theopompos it took its name when some of the men with Agamemnon stayed there on account of a disease to do with their buttocks (pygai, πυγαί).[9] Suda wrote the same about the name of the place.[10]

It is located near Kuşadası, Asiatic Turkey.[11][12]

References

  1. ^ Xenophon. Hellenica. 1.2.2.
  2. ^ Strabo. Geographica. xiv. p.639. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  3. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Πύγελα.
  4. ^ Harpocrat. s.v. Πύγελα; Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.31.
  5. ^ Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax p. 37; Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.17.
  6. ^ Livy. Ab Urbe Condita Libri (History of Rome). 37.1.
  7. ^ Dioscorides, De Materia Medica 5.12
  8. ^ a b Mogens Herman Hansen & Thomas Heine Nielsen (2004). "Ionia". An inventory of archaic and classical poleis. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1094. ISBN 0-19-814099-1.
  9. ^ HARPOKRATION, LEXICON OF THE TEN ORATORS, § p119
  10. ^ Suda Encyclopedia, § pi.3109
  11. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
  12. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Pygela". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.