This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.


Photograph of Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1921. D'Annunzio was an Italian nationalist and poet who is considered a proto-fascist.

Proto-fascism refers to the direct predecessor ideologies and cultural movements that influenced and formed the basis of fascism.[1][2] A prominent proto-fascist figure is Gabriele D'Annunzio, the Italian nationalist whose politics influenced Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism.[1] Proto-fascist political movements include the Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI), the German National Association of Commercial Employees (Deutschnationaler Handlungsgehilfen-Verband, DHV) and the German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP).[2]

Precedents to modern fascism can be seen in the culture and government of older nations based heavily on law and order, such as the Roman Empire and the anciens régimes of Europe.

Other people that have been labeled proto-fascist are Edgar Julius Jung, Patrick Pearse,[3] Charles Maurras and Ion Dragoumis (by John Mazis in his book A Man For All Seasons: The Uncompromising Life of Ion Dragoumis).[4]


  1. ^ a b Spackman, Barbara: Fascist Virilities: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Social Fantasy in Italy, p. 78.
  2. ^ a b Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. p.94.
  3. ^ "Patrick Pearse: proto-fascist eccentric or visionary?". History Ireland (Podcast). Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  4. ^ "Γιάννης Μάζης: «Ο Δραγούμης δεν έχω καμία αμφιβολία ότι ήταν ένας πρωτοφασίστας»". Εθνικόν Κράτος (in Greek). 2017-06-04. Retrieved 2018-10-23.