Proto-fascism refers to the direct predecessor ideologies and cultural movements that influenced and formed the basis of fascism. A prominent proto-fascist figure is Gabriele D'Annunzio, the Italian nationalist whose politics influenced Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism. Proto-fascist political movements include the Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI), the German National Association of Commercial Employees (Deutschnationaler Handlungsgehilfen-Verband, DHV) and the German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP).
Other people that have been labeled proto-fascist are Edgar Julius Jung, Patrick Pearse, Charles Maurras and Ion Dragoumis (by John Mazis in his book A Man For All Seasons: The Uncompromising Life of Ion Dragoumis).
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