|Native to||United States, Canada|
|Region||Michigan,((Oklahoma)),Indiana, Wisconsin, Kansas, and southern Ontario|
|Latin (various alphabets), |
Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics
Potawatomi (//, also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi Bodéwadmimwen, or Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen, or Neshnabémwen) is a Central Algonquian language. It was historically spoken by the Pottawatomi people who lived around the Great Lakes in what are now Michigan and Wisconsin in the United States, and in southern Ontario in Canada. Federally recognized tribes in Michigan and Oklahoma are working to revive the language.
Cecilia Miksekwe Jackson, one of the last surviving native speakers of Potawatomi, died in May 2011, at the age of 88. She was known for working to preserve and teach the language.
The federally recognized Pokégnek Bodéwadmik Pokagon Band of Potawatomi started a master-apprentice program in which a "language student (the language apprentice) will be paired with fluent Potawatomi speakers (the language masters)" in January 2013. In addition, classes in the Potowatomi language are available, including those at the Hannahville summer immersion camp, with webcast instruction and videoconferencing.
Potawatomi is a member of the Algonquian language family (itself a member of the larger Algic stock). It is usually classified as a Central Algonquian language, with languages such as Ojibwe, Cree, Menominee, Miami-Illinois, Shawnee and Fox. The label "Central Algonquian" signifies a geographic grouping rather than the group of languages descended from a common ancestor language within the Algonquian family. Of the Central languages, Potawatomi is most similar to Ojibwe, but it also has borrowed a considerable amount of vocabulary from the Sauk.
Generally, in developments since Indian Removal in the 19th century, Potawatomi has become differentiated in North America among separated populations. It is divided between Northern Potawatomi, spoken in Ontario, Canada; and Michigan and Wisconsin of the United States; and Southern Potawatomi, which is spoken in Kansas and Oklahoma, where certain Pottawatomi ancestors were removed who had formerly lived in Illinois and other areas east of the Mississippi River.
Though no standard orthography has been agreed upon by the Potawatomi communities, the system most commonly used is the "Pedagogical System" developed by the Wisconsin Native American Languages Program (WNALP). As the name suggests, it was designed to be used in language teaching. The system is based on the Roman alphabet and is phonemic, with each letter or digraph representing a contrastive sound. The letters used are: a b ch d e é (ë) (ê) (ė) g ' h i j k m n o p s sh t w y z zh.
In Kansas, a different system called BWAKA is used. It too is both based on the Roman alphabet and phonemic, with each letter or digraph representing a contrastive sound. The letters used are: ' a b c d e e' g h i I j k m n o p s sh t u w y z zh.
The traditional system used in writing Potawatomi is a form of syllabic writing. Potawatomi, Ottawa, Sac, Fox and Winnebago communities all used it. Derived from the Roman alphabet, it resembles handwritten Roman text. However, unlike the Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics or the Cherokee alphabet, it has not yet been incorporated into the Unicode standards.
Each Potawatomi syllabic block in the system has at least 2 of the 17 alphabetic letters, which consist of 13 consonants and 4 vowels. Of the 13 phonemic consonantal letters, the /h/, written ⟨⟩, is optional.
|(lA)||(p)||s||z/s||(qA)||(kw)||e||e (ë) (ê)|
|t||d/t||(sA)||s||g||g of "-ng"||e||é (ė)|
Here, the phonology of the Northern dialect is described, which differs somewhat from that of the Southern dialect, spoken in Kansas.
⟨é⟩, which is often written as ⟨e'⟩, represents an open-mid front unrounded vowel, /ɛ/. ⟨e⟩ represents the schwa, /ə/, which has several allophonic variants. Before /n/, it becomes [ɪ]; before /k/, it becomes /ɡ/ or /ʔ/; and word-finally, it becomes [ʌ].
⟨o⟩ is pronounced /u/ in Michigan and /o/ elsewhere. When it is in a closed syllable, it is pronounced [ʊ]. There are also four diphthongs, /ɛj ɛw əj əw/, spelled ⟨éy éw ey ew⟩. Phonemic /əj əw/ are realized as [ɪj ʌw].
Obstruents, as in many other Algonquian languages, do not have a voicing distinction per se but what is better termed a "strong"/"weak" distinction. "Strong" consonants, written as voiceless (⟨p t k kw⟩), are always voiceless, often aspirated, and longer in duration than the "weak" consonants, which are written as voiced (⟨b d g gw⟩) and are often voiced and are not aspirated. Nasals before another consonant become syllabic, and /t/, /d/, and /n/ are dental: [t̪ d̪ n̪].
Potawatomi has six parts of speech: noun, verb, pronoun, prenoun, preverb, and particle.
There are two main types of pronoun: personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns. As nouns and verbs use inflection to describe anaphoric reference, the main use of the free pronouns is for emphasis.
The relatively-recent split from Ojibwe makes Potawatomi still exhibit strong correspondences, especifically with the Odaawaa (Ottawa) dialect.
|a (stressed)||a (stressed)||e (ë)||e/u||ə|
|e (unstressed)||e (unstressed)||e (ė)||e||ə|
|e (stressed)||e (stressed)||é/e'||e'||ɛ|
|g||g||j (from gy*)||j/c (from gy*)||dʒ|
|i (stressed)||i (stressed)||e||e/I||ə|
|k||k||ch (from ky*)||c (from ky*)||tʃ|
|(not from PA *n)
|(from PA *n)
|o (unstressed)||(none)/w/o (unstressed)||(none)/w/o/e||(none)/w/o/e||∅~w~o~ʊ~ə|
|o (stressed)||o (stressed)||o (ê)||o||o~ʊ|
|wa (unstressed)||wa (unstressed)/o||w/o||w/o||w~o~ʊ|
|waa (unstressed)||waa (unstressed)/oo||wa/o||wa/o||wa~o~ʊ|
|wi (unstressed)||wi (unstressed)/o||w/o||w/o||w~o~ʊ|
|y||y||y (initial glide)||y (initial glide)||j|
|(none)||(none)||y (medial glide)||y (medial glide)||j|