is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma
and 45th-largest in the United States
. With an estimated population of 382,872 in 2006, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area
, a region of 897,752 residents projected to reach one million between 2010 and 2012.
Tulsa was first settled in the 1830s by the Creek Native American tribe. In 1921, it was the site of the infamous Tulsa Race Riot, one of the largest and most destructive acts of racial violence in the history of the United States. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. Tulsa has been credited as the birthplace of U.S. Route 66 and the home of Western Swing music.
Once heavily dependent on the oil industry, economic downturn and subsequent diversification efforts created an economic base in the energy, finance, aviation, telecommunications and technology sectors. The Tulsa Port of Catoosa, at the head of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, is the most inland riverport in the U.S. with access to international waterways. Two institutions of higher education within the city operate at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa.
(born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian writer who has been called the "noir prophet" of the cyberpunk
subgenre of science fiction. Gibson coined the term "cyberspace
" in his short story "Burning Chrome
" and later popularized the concept in his debut novel, Neuromancer
(1984). In envisaging cyberspace, Gibson created an iconography
for the information age
before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s. He is also credited with predicting the rise of reality television
and with establishing the conceptual foundations for the rapid growth of virtual environments such as video games and the Web.
After expanding on Neuromancer with two more novels to complete the dystopic Sprawl trilogy, Gibson became a central figure to an entirely different science fiction subgenre – steampunk – with the 1990 alternate history novel The Difference Engine, written in collaboration with Bruce Sterling. In the 1990s he composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which focused on sociological observations of near future urban environments and late-stage capitalism. His most recent novels – Pattern Recognition (2003) and Spook Country (2007) – are set in a contemporary world and have put Gibson's work onto mainstream bestseller lists for the first time.
To date, Gibson has written more than twenty short stories, nine novels (one in collaboration), a nonfiction artist's book, and has contributed articles to several major publications and collaborated extensively with performance artists, filmmakers and musicians.