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Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (listen); Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (listen)), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi) and has approximately 128,649,565 inhabitants, making it the world's 13th-largest country by area, 10th-most populous country, and most populous Spanish-speaking nation. It is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital city and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most well-known among them the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico City, which then became known as New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role as millions of indigenous inhabitants converted. These populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious material, which became a major source of wealth for the Spanish. Mexico became an independent nation state after the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821.
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Stela 51 from Calakmul, dating to 731, is the best preserved monument from the city. It depicts the king Yuknoom Tookʼ Kʼawiil
Maya stelae (singular stela) are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. They consist of tall, sculpted stone shafts and are often associated with low circular stones referred to as altars, although their actual function is uncertain. Many stelae were sculpted in low relief, although plain monuments are found throughout the Maya region. The sculpting of these monuments spread throughout the Maya area during the Classic Period (250–900 AD), and these pairings of sculpted stelae and circular altars are considered a hallmark of Classic Maya civilization. The earliest dated stela to have been found in situ in the Maya lowlands was recovered from the great city of Tikal in Guatemala. During the Classic Period almost every Maya kingdom in the southern lowlands raised stelae in its ceremonial centre.
Stelae became closely associated with the concept of divine kingship
and declined at the same time as this institution. The production of stelae by the Maya
had its origin around 400 BC and continued through to the end of the Classic Period, around 900, although some monuments were reused in the Postclassic
(c. 900–1521). The major city of Calakmul
raised the greatest number of stelae known from any Maya city
, at least 166, although they are very poorly preserved. Read more...
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Mexico have expanded in recent years, in keeping with worldwide legal trends. The intellectual influence of the French Revolution and the brief French occupation of Mexico (1862–67) resulted in the adoption of the Napoleonic Code, which decriminalized same-sex sexual acts in 1871. Laws against public immorality or indecency, however, have been used to prosecute persons who engage in them.
Tolerance of sexual diversity
in certain indigenous cultures is widespread, especially among Isthmus Zapotecs
and Yucatán Mayas
. As the influence of foreign and domestic cultures (especially from more cosmopolitan areas like Mexico City) grows throughout Mexico
, attitudes are changing. This is most marked in the largest metropolitan areas
, such as Guadalajara
, and Tijuana
, where education and access to foreigners and foreign news media are greatest. Change is slower in the hinterlands, however, and even in large cities discomfort with change often leads to backlashes
. Since the early 1970s, influenced by the United States gay liberation movement
and the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre
, a substantial number of LGBT organizations
have emerged. Visible and well-attended LGBT marches and pride parades
have occurred in Mexico City
since 1979 and in Guadalajara
since 1996. Read more...
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Selected biography -
Slim in December 2018
Carlos Slim Helú (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkaɾlos ezˈlim eˈlu]; born 28 January 1940 in Mexico City) is a Mexican business magnate, investor and philanthropist. From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world by the Forbes business magazine. He derived his fortune from his extensive holdings in a considerable number of Mexican companies through his conglomerate, Grupo Carso. As of February 2020, he is the fifth-richest person in the world according to Forbes' listing of The World's Billionaires, with he and his family having a net worth estimated at $68.9 billion. He is the richest person in Latin America.
His conglomerate includes education, health care, industrial manufacturing, transportation, real estate, media, energy, hospitality, entertainment, high-technology, retail, sports and financial services. He accounts for 40% of the listings on the Mexican Stock Exchange, while his net worth is equivalent to about 6 percent of Mexico's gross domestic product. As of 2016, he is the largest single shareholder of The New York Times Company
. Read more...
Selected fare or cuisine -
Chicken in a dark red mole sauce
Mole (, IPA: [ˈmole] (listen); from Nahuatl mōlli, "sauce") is a traditional marinade and sauce originally used in Mexican cuisine. In contemporary Mexico the term is used for a number of sauces, some quite dissimilar, including black, red / Colorado, yellow, green, almendrado, de olla, huaxmole, guacamole, and pipián. Outside of Mexico, it typically refers to mole poblano.
Generally, a mole sauce contains a fruit, chili pepper
, nut, and such spices as black pepper
, or cumin
. A type of green mole known as mole verde
is made with pumpkin seeds
and green chile
. Read more...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
El Chapo in US custody after his extradition from Mexico.
A map of Mexico 1845 after Texas annexation by U.S.
A detachment of Rurales during the Porfiriato
Alegoría de la Constitución de 1857, Petronilo Monroy, 1869.
Logo of Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank.
Entry into Mexico City by the Mexican army.
Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at Miramare Castle in Trieste. Painting by Cesare dell'Acqua (1821-1905).
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
Plaza de la Constitución (Constitution Square) The "Zocalo"
A unit of Cristeros preparing for battle.
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo
Detail of a relief from Palenque, a Classic-era city. Maya script is the only known complete writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas and enabled the beginning of recorded history.
Since the 16th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs.
Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in Jalisco.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789)
A pilot standing in front of his P-47D with a maintenance crew after a combat mission
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya").
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution.
Flag of the Second Mexican Empire
Logo of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stars on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase.
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains.
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress.
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso, Tabasco
The National film library.
The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle.
President Enrique Peña Nieto with President of China Xi Jinping
The identities of the Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities.
Mexico City street market
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd.
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (La Constitución ha muerto).
A 20th-century mural by Diego Rivera depicting Spaniards' exploitation of indigenous labor
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850.
Northern Dance in Nuevo León
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya.
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