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Portal:Islam

Introduction

Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religious group teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion and with over 1.8 billion followers (or 24.1% of the world's population), most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE).

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.

Aside from the theological viewpoint, Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, and by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (dawah). Read more...

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Azophi's Book of Fixed Stars
In the history of astronomy, Islamic astronomy or Arabic astronomy refers to the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th-16th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language. These developments mostly took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, North Africa, and later in China and India. It closely parallels the genesis of other Islamic sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science. These included Indian, Sassanid and Hellenistic works in particular, which were translated and built upon. In turn, Islamic astronomy later had a significant influence on Indian and European astronomy (see Latin translations of the 12th century) as well as Chinese astronomy. A significant number of stars in the sky, such as Aldebaran and Altair, and astronomical terms such as alhidade, azimuth, and almucantar, are still today recognized with their Arabic names. A large corpus of literature from Islamic astronomy remains today, numbering approximately 10,000 manuscripts scattered throughout the world, many of which have not been read or catalogued. Even so, a reasonably accurate picture of Islamic activity in the field of astronomy can be reconstructed.

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Example of an ijazah, or diploma of competency in Arabic calligraphy
Credit: 'Ali Ra'if Efendi, (edited by Durova)

Example of an ijazah, or diploma of competency in Arabic calligraphy

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Theo van Gogh

Islam in the news

13 November 2018 –
The Islamic City Council of Tehran appoints Pirouz Hanachi as the new mayor of Tehran, the third in 18 months. (RFE/RL)
9 November 2018 – 2018 Melbourne stabbing attack
One person is killed and two others are injured by a knife-wielding man in Melbourne, Australia. The suspect, a 31-year-old Australian resident originally from Somalia, randomly stabbed pedestrians after exiting his burning, crashed utility truck that held multiple gas canisters. He was shot and killed attempting to stab responding police. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claims responsibility. (ABC News) (The Age) (NPR)
8 November 2018 –
A riot at a high-security prison in Khujand, Tajikistan, known for holding convicted terrorists, including ISIL members, leaves at least 27 people dead. (Reuters)
6 November 2018 – United States elections, 2018
At least 95 women attain congressional office, bringing the total number of women in all parts of Congress to a record 118. Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar share the distinction of becoming the first Muslim congresswomen, while Sharice Davids and Deb Haaland become the first Native American congresswomen. (USA Today), (NPR), (CNN)
4 November 2018 – 2018 Minya bus attack
Egyptian Police kill 19 Islamist militants accused of involvement in an attack on Coptic Christians in central Egypt two days ago. (BBC)

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Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra
Ezra is a biblical priest who is usually believed by Muslim commentators to be the figure mentioned in the Qur'anic verse 9:30 and worshiped by Jews as "the son of God". Although not explicitly mentioned in Quran among the prophets, Ezra is considered as one of the prophets by some Muslim scholars, based on Islamic traditions. Ezra lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist. On the other hand, Muslim scholars such as Mutahhar al-Maqdisi and Djuwayni and notably Ibn Hazm and al-Samaw'al accused Ezra (or one of his disciples) of falsification of the Scriptures. The claim that of the Quran, that the Jews believed Ezra was the son of God, has never collaborated with any evidence. In fact, the Book of Ezra, which dates more than thousand years before the Quran explicitly says Ezra is the son of Seraiah. Many scholars believe Muhammad made this assertion so as to claim clean monotheism for the Muslims alone, in his day. Because of lack of evidence of any Jewish community believing Uzair (Ezra) was the son of God, this verse has caused major controversy in Islam.

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Shi'a IslamSunni IslamHadithProphetsSalafMuslim scholarsIslam and ControversyMuslim historyMosquesLinks Cleanup

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Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Fanaticism and extremism cannot grow on an earth whose soil is embedded in the spirit of tolerance, moderation, and balance. Good governance can eliminate injustice, destitution and poverty.

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