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Portal:India

Parent portals : Geography / Asia / India

India Portal

Introduction

TajMahal Banner.jpg
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
Flag of India
Location on the world map

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin. Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.

Selected articles

Hyderabad montage-2.png

Hyderabad (/ˈhdərəbɑːd/ (About this soundlisten) HY-dər-ə-baad) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) along the banks of the Musi River, located on the Deccan Plateau in the northern part of South India. At an average altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft), much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar lake —predating the city's founding—north of the city centre. Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million, with about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth-most populous city and sixth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product.

In 1591 Qutb Shahi ruler Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah established Hyderabad to extend the capital beyond the fortified Golconda, in 1687 the city was annexed by the Mughals—in 1724 Mughal governor Nizam Asaf Jah I declared his sovereignty and founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty also known as the Nizams, Hyderabad served as the imperial capital of the Asaf Jahi from 1769-1948. As capital of the princely state of Hyderabad the city housed the British Residency and cantonment until Indian independence in 1947. Hyderabad was invaded and integrated into the Indian Union in 1948 and continues as a capital of Hyderabad State (1948–56), when States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was introduced Hyderabad was made the capital of the united Andhra Pradesh, in 2014 Telangana state was formed after bifurcation of Andhra—Hyderabad City became a joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end in 2025. Since 1956, the city houses the winter office of the President of India.

Relics of the Qutb Shahi and Nizam rules remain visible today; the Charminar has come to symbolize the city. By the end of early modern era, the Mughal Empire declined in the Deccan and the Nizams' patronage had attracted men of letters from different parts of the world. The amalgamation of local and migrated artisans had originated a distinctive culture, and the city emerged as the foremost centre of Oriental culture. Painting, handicraft, jewellery, litrature, dialect, clothing and cuisine (which includes biryani and haleem) and is prominent still today. The Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. Read more...

Selected picture

Blank locator map of India

The second-most populous nation in the world, India has long played a major role in human history. Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism all have their origins in India, while Islam and Christianity enjoy a strong cultural heritage. Colonised as part of the British Empire in the nineteenth century, India gained independence in 1947 as a unified nation after an intense struggle for independence.

This blank map of India is one of the most comprehensive on the Internet in terms of its borders with respect to its territorial disputes with Pakistan and China.

Map credit: Nichalp

Selected lists

News

9 November 2019 – Ayodhya dispute
The Supreme Court of India rules in favor of Hindus over a place of worship that has been the center of disputes between them and the Muslim community in the country. (Reuters)
31 October 2019 –
India formally splits Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, dubbed Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. Both entities will be directly governed from New Delhi. (BBC News)
28 September 2019 –
Flooding in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh kills at least 93 people and displaces thousands of others. Another 29 people were killed in Bihar. (BBC).
15 September 2019 –
A sightseeing boat capsizes on the Godavari River in India's East Godavari district, killing at least 12 people and leaving 35 others missing, all Indian nationals. (The Independent)
6 September 2019 –
The Indian Space Research Organization loses contact with Vikram moments before its planned soft landing on the Moon. India would have been the fourth nation to have explored the lunar surface, had Vikram successfully landed, and it would have deployed the Pragyan rover onto the surface. (NPR)
31 August 2019 –
An explosion followed by a fire at a chemical factory in Dhule, India kills at least 12 and injures at least 58. (CNN)
India releases the final version of the National Register of Citizens for the state of Assam. Up to 1.9 million residents risk losing their citizenship if they are not on the list and can not prove their residency. The move is criticized for disproportionately affecting the local Bengali community. (BBC)

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Topics related to India

Timeline of Indian history, Indus Valley Civilization, Dholavira, Science and technology in ancient India, Meluhha, Aryan invasion theory, Out of India theory, Greek Conquests in India, Indian Ancient Maritime History, Mauryan dynasty, Ashokan Era, Sunga dynasty, Hoysala, Vijayanagara, Satavahana, Indo-Greek kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Western Kshatrapas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pala Empire, Islamic incursions in India, Mughal Era, Maratha Empire, British Raj, British East India Company, Governor-General, Viceroy, War of Independence, 1857, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Azad Hind, Quit India Movement, Partition of India, History of Republic of India, Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, 2001 India Pakistan standoff, Military, Demographic


Law, Hindu law, Constitution, Political parties (Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party), Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Reservations in India


Government agencies, Legislative branch (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) Executive branch (President & Vice-President, Prime Minister & Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Cabinet Secretary of India, Election Commission, Foreign Minister; Law enforcement: CBI, CID, Intelligence: IB, RAW), Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Judicial branch (Supreme Court), Military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Force, Coast Guard)


The Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River, North-East India; Mountains, Valleys, Islands, Rivers; States and territories, Cities, Districts, Regions, Fauna and flora


Rupee, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange, Standard of living, Companies, Reserve Bank of India, Energy policy (Solar, Wind, Nuclear), Tourism, Transport (Highways, Rail transport, Auto rickshaw),


Languages, Standard of living, Religion


Music (Carnatic, Hindustani, Indi-pop), Dance, Languages, Literature, Architecture, Film & TV, Cuisine, Holidays, Folklore, Education, Media, Indian martial arts


Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, National Centre for Software Technology, AIIMS, IISc, IIT, NIT, BITS-Pilani, INRegistry, Indian numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Internet Exchange, ICRISAT, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad


Other

Indian English, Indian nationality law, Numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, Communications, National Highways Development Project, Flag, Licence plates, Indian nationalism, Metrication in India

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