The History Portal
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.
Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived.
Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
The Sydney Riot of 1879
was a civil disorder
that occurred at an early international cricket
match. It took place in Sydney
, New South Wales, Australia, at the Association Ground, Moore Park
, now known as the Sydney Cricket Ground
, during a match between a touring English team
captained by Lord Harris
and New South Wales
, led by Dave Gregory
, who was also the captain of Australia
. The riot was sparked by a controversial umpiring decision, when star Australian batsman Billy Murdoch
was given out
by George Coulthard
, a Victorian
employed by the Englishmen. The dismissal caused an uproar among the parochial spectators, many of whom surged onto the pitch
and assaulted Coulthard and some English players. It was alleged that illegal gamblers
in the New South Wales pavilion, who had bet heavily on the home side, encouraged the riot because the tourists were in a dominant position and looked set to win. Another theory given to explain the anger was that of intercolonial rivalry
, that the New South Wales crowd objected to what they perceived to be a slight from a Victorian umpire.
The pitch invasion occurred while Gregory halted the match by not sending out a replacement for Murdoch. The New South Wales skipper called on Lord Harris to remove umpire Coulthard, whom he considered to be inept or biased, but his English counterpart declined. The other umpire, Edmund Barton, defended Coulthard and Lord Harris, saying that the decision against Murdoch was correct and that the English had conducted themselves appropriately. Eventually, Gregory agreed to resume the match without the removal of Coulthard. However, the crowd continued to disrupt proceedings, and play was abandoned for the day. Upon resumption after the Sunday rest day, Lord Harris's men won convincingly by an innings.
George Wilcken Romney
(July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was an American businessman
and Republican Party politician
. He was chairman and president of American Motors Corporation
from 1954 to 1962, the 43rd Governor of Michigan
from 1963 to 1969, and the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
from 1969 to 1973. He was the father of former Governor of Massachusetts
and 2012 Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney
and the husband of former Michigan U.S. Senate candidate Lenore Romney
. Romney was born to American parents living in the Mormon colonies in Mexico
; events during the Mexican Revolution
forced his family to flee back to the United States when he was a child. The family lived in several states and ended up in Salt Lake City, Utah
, where they struggled during the Great Depression
. Romney worked in a number of jobs, served as a Mormon missionary
in the United Kingdom
, and attended several colleges in the U.S. but did not graduate from any. In 1939 he moved to Detroit
and joined the American Automobile Manufacturers Association
, where he served as the chief spokesman for the automobile industry during World War II
and headed a cooperative arrangement in which companies could share production improvements. He joined Nash-Kelvinator
in 1948, and became the chief executive of its successor, American Motors Corporation
, in 1954. There he turned around the struggling firm by focusing all efforts on the compact Rambler
car. Romney mocked the products of the "Big Three
" automakers as "gas-guzzling dinosaurs" and became one of the first high-profile, media-savvy business executives. Devoutly religious, he presided over the Detroit Stake
of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Did you know...
An 1863 meeting between Maoris and settlers in Hawke's Bay Province, New Zealand. This was during the Invasion of the Waikato, and, although the Maoris and settlers in this region had always got along fairly well, the situation grew somewhat tense, and so this meeting was held to allow them to talk things over, and resulted in a reaffirmation of friendship and peace between the groups.
On this day
If you wish to avoid foreign collision, you had better abandon the ocean.
"Archaeology is the peeping Tom of the sciences. It is the sandbox of men who care not where they are going; they merely want to know where everyone else has been. "
— Jim Bishop
Things you can do