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Introduction

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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
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Exterior view of Qu'Appelle Indian Industrial School in Lebret, District of Assiniboia, c. 1885. Surrounding land and tents are visible in the foreground.
The Qu'Appelle Indian Industrial School in Lebret, District of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, c. 1885


In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches. The school system was created for the purpose of removing Indigenous children from the influence of their own culture and assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture, "to kill the Indian in the child." Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, about 30 percent of Indigenous children (around 150,000) were placed in residential schools nationally. The number of school-related deaths remains unknown due to an incomplete historical record, though estimates range from 3,200 to upwards of 6,000. Read more...

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A young man with short, curly hair and an artificial right leg runs down a street. He wears shorts and a T-shirt that reads "Marathon of Hope"
Terry Fox in Toronto during his Marathon of Hope cross-country run (July 1980)

Terrance Stanley Fox CC OD (July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian athlete, humanitarian, and cancer research activist. In 1980, with one leg having been amputated due to cancer, he embarked on an east to west cross-Canada run to raise money and awareness for cancer research. Although the spread of his cancer eventually forced him to end his quest after 143 days and 5,373 kilometres (3,339 mi), and ultimately cost him his life, his efforts resulted in a lasting, worldwide legacy. The annual Terry Fox Run, first held in 1981, has grown to involve millions of participants in over 60 countries and is now the world's largest one-day fundraiser for cancer research; over C$750 million has been raised in his name, as of January 2018. Read more...

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A male North American beaver

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced in South America (Patagonia) and Europe (primarily Finland and Karelia). In the United States and Canada, the species is often referred to simply as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is often called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, which is native to Eurasia. The North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon. Read more...

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The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archeological investigations. Read more...

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Current events

February 23, 2020 – 2020 Dominican Republic municipal elections
Protests begin in New York and Massachusetts in the United States, Paris in France, Toronto in Canada, Madrid, Navarre, and Barcelona in Spain, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and London in England. (Dominican Today)
February 20, 2020 –
A 200-car pileup in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada, kills two people and injures 69 others. (News AU)
February 14, 2020 – Indigenous land claims in Canada
Canadian National suspends operations of its railroad network in eastern Canada, and Via Rail cancels most passenger inter-city rail service in Canada, in response to a blockade by First Nations activists, in support of the Unistʼotʼen Camp in Wetʼsuwetʼen First Nation territory in British Columbia protesting the Coastal GasLink Pipeline project. (CBC News)
February 13, 2020 –
Canadian airplane manufacturer Bombardier sells its remaining stake in the A220 model, previously called the C-Series, to France's Airbus, effectively closing its commercial aviation line of business. (CBC)
February 1, 2020 –
400–500 people are left stranded at the Sasquatch Mountain Resort in British Columbia, Canada, after the road to the resort was damaged from landslides caused by heavy rain. Train service between Vancouver and Seattle was also suspended until Monday due to mudslides. (CTV News) (CTV News)


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Northwest Crown Fire Experiment, Canada
Credit: (Photograph used by permission of the USDA Forest Service.)

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Vancouver, British Columbia, viewed from the south with mountains behind. Blended exposure version. 20 stitched images.
Panoramic view of Vancouver
Credit: Mfield (Matthew Field)

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