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Portal:Bangladesh

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The BANGLADESH PORTAL
02:23, Wednesday, October 23, 2019 (UTC) • 8:23, Wednesday October 23, 2019 (BST) • Kartik 8


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Bangladesh (/ˌbæŋɡləˈdɛʃ, ˌbɑːŋ-/; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (About this soundlisten), lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. While the country is the 92nd-largest in land area, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi), it is the world's 8th-most populous with nearly 163 million people, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and with Myanmar to the east, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest sea port, is the second largest city. The dominant geographic feature is the Ganges delta, which empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, including the Brahmaputra and the Ganges, with numerous criss-crossing rivers and inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests cover the northeastern and southeastern regions. The seacoast features the longest natural sea beach and most of the world's largest mangrove forest. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.

Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. According to the ancient Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval ally of the legendary Ayodhya. In the ancient and classical period of the Indian subcontinent, the territory was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate, but following the early conquest of Bakhtiyar Khalji and the subsequent establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalal in East Bengal, the faith fully spread across the region. In 1576, the area was absorbed into the Mughal Empire, although part was overrun by the Suri Empire. Following the decline of the Mughals in the early 1700s, Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal, ultimately led by Siraj ud-Daulah. It was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the separation of Bengal and India in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan, demarcated by the Boundary of the Partition of India. Later the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement led to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign nation in 1971.

The Bengali ethnicity, speakers of the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's fourth-largest Muslim-majority country. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. A middle power, Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic in the Westminster tradition. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, one of the Next Eleven countries, with one of the fastest real GDP growth rates in the world. Its gross domestic product ranks 39th largest in terms of market exchange rates, and 29th in purchasing power parity. Its per capita income ranks 143th nominally and 136th by purchasing power parity. In recent years Bangladesh has registered notable success in reducing child mortality, population control, combating natural disasters, women's empowerment, earning foreign exchange through the export of textiles, and using microcredit to alleviate poverty. However, the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya genocide and refugee crisis, terrorism, corruption, and the erratic effects of climate change.




Selected article

Tomb of Siraj-ud-Daulah
The Nawabs of Bengal (the Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa) were Shia Muslim rulers of Bengal, and significant portions of present-day Bihar and Orissa. With their capital in Murshidabad, they ruled the Mughal Bengal subah, while nominally subordinate to the Mughal empire, in between 1717 and 1772. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, lost the Battle of Plassey to the British East India Company in 1757. He was betrayed by Mir Jafar in the battle, who was subsequently installed as the titular Nawab Nazim. Following the victory in Plassey, the British East India Company established itself as a strong political power-hold in the region of Bengal. In 1765, the system of dual government came to be established, as per which the Nawabs ruled subordinate to the British. In 1772, the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the Company. When the nizamat (administration, judicial, and military powers) of the Nawab was also taken away in 1793, they remained as the mere pensioners of the Company. Following the abolition of the title of Nawab of Bengal in 1880, the last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan, abdicated on 1 November 1880, in favour of his eldest son, Hassan Ali Mirza.

The Nawabs of Murshidabad (Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad) succeeded the Nawabs of Bengal, following Mansur Ali Khan's abdication They had no direct control in the share of the revenue collected and could not use military force. The fourth Nawab Bahadur, Waris Ali Mirza died in 1969, and a long dispute over succession ensued. Meanwhile, the policy of Privy Purse, which had allowed nobles to keep some of their privileges and titles, stood abolished in 1971 by the twenty-sixth amendment of the Constitution of India, derecognising all such rulers. Eventually, in August 2014, the Supreme Court of India decided on the dispute over succession to Waris Ali, in which one Abbas Ali Mirza was declared to be his lawful heir; Waris Ali Mirza was his maternal uncle. The hereditary title today is de facto only as it is not recognised by Indian law.

Bangladesh News

20 October 2019 – Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh
The government of Bangladesh announces it will begin moving thousands of Rohingya refugees from crowded camps to the flood-prone island of Thengar Char, starting early November. The government hopes to relocate 100,000 refugees by the end of the operation, which has been criticised by rights groups as an "inevitable" humanitarian crisis. (Al Jazeera) (Reuters)
31 August 2019 –
India releases the final version of the National Register of Citizens for the state of Assam. Up to 1.9 million residents risk losing their citizenship if they are not on the list and can not prove their residency. The move is criticized for disproportionately affecting the local Bengali community. (BBC)
25 August 2019 – Rohingya crisis
At Kutupalong, the world's largest refugee camp, in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 200,000 people gather peacefully to remember the day, in 2017, when a violent crackdown by Myanmarese security forces compelled 740,000 Rohingya to flee over the border. (France24)
13 July 2019 – Monsoon of South Asia
Three days of heavy rain in Nepal trigger floods and landslides resulting in at least 67 deaths. India was also affected by heavy floods, resulting in the death of 34 people, while 29 others died in Bangladesh. (BBC)
4 May 2019 – 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
Cyclone Fani starts affecting Bangladesh, where over a million people have been evacuated from the storm's path. Authorities say the cyclone has killed at least five people in Bangladesh and damaged over a thousand homes. At least twelve people have been killed in total by the cyclone. (Reuters)
3 May 2019 – 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
Cyclone Fani, an extremely severe category 4 storm and one of the strongest in recent years, makes landfall at the coastal town of Puri in the Indian state of Odisha. Eight people have been killed in India, according to the Press Trust of India, and hundreds more injured. Severe damage and flooding has been reported. One million Indians and 2.1 million Bangladeshis have been evacuated. A storm surge possibly up to 1.5m (5ft) is expected. The storm, weakening as it travels northeast through India, is expected to reach Chittagong in Bangladesh Saturday. (Reuters) (BBC)


Archive of old items

Where in Bangladesh...

Mosque city of Bagerhat, founded by Turkish general Ulugh Khan Jahan in the early 15th century, is one of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh. Do you know where in Bangladesh is Mosque city of Bagerhat?
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Mosque city of Bagerhat
This historic city is located at the meeting-point of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bagerhat District, under Khulna Division in south-west Bangladesh.


Selected images

Did you know...

Hakim Habibur Rahman

  • ... that while mainly charged with maintaining law and order, Bangladesh Ansars are also assigned to help in schemes promoting local development?


Selected biography

Nazrul Islam

Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bengali: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম) (25 May 1899–29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, musician, revolutionary, and philosopher who pioneered poetic works espousing intense spiritual rebellion against orthodoxy and oppression. His poetry and nationalist activism earned him the popular title of Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, Nazrul is officially recognised as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India.

Born in a poor Muslim family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with theatrical groups. After serving in the British Indian Army, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Kolkata (then Calcutta). He assailed the British Raj in India and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" ("The Rebel") and "Bhangar Gaan" ("The Song of Destruction"), as well as his publication "Dhumketu" ("The Comet"). His impassioned activism in the Indian independence movement often led to his imprisonment by British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi" ("Deposition of a Political Prisoner") and condemned Islamic fundamentalism, orthodox traditions and bigotry in society. Exploring the life and conditions of the downtrodden masses of India, Nazrul agitated fiercely for their emancipation.

Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. Throughout his career, Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best-known for his poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 3,000 songs, collectively known as Nazrul geeti (Nazrul songs), which are widely popular today. At the age of 43 (in 1942) he began suffering from an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. What was later diagnosed as Pick's Disease, caused Nazrul's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972, where he died four years later. (more...)

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