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Portal:Atmospheric sciences

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Atmospheric sciences are the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system.

Experimental instruments used in atmospheric sciences include satellites, rocketsondes, radiosondes, weather balloons, and lasers.

The term aerology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; and -λογία, -logia) is sometimes used as an alternative term for the study of Earth's atmosphere. Early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann.

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Full featured rainbow in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Alaska.

A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a nearly continuous spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere. It takes the form of a multicoloured arc, with red on the outside and violet on the inside. A double rainbow includes a second, fainter, arc with colors in the opposite order.

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Atlantic hurricane reanalysis is an ongoing project within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration which seeks to correct and add new information about past North Atlantic tropical cyclones. It was started around 2000 to update HURDAT, the official hurricane database for the Atlantic Basin, which has become outdated since its creation.

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A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards northwestern Europe in the winter months. These storms usually track over the north coast of Scotland towards Norway but can veer south to affect other countries including Ireland, Wales, England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Germany. As these storms can generate hurricane-force winds (and sometimes even winds at the strength of major hurricanes), they are sometimes referred to as hurricanes, even though very few originate as tropical cyclones.

These storms cause economic damage of $1.7 billion U.S. per year, and insurance losses of $1.2 billion U.S. per year (1990-1998). They rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss (after U.S. hurricanes). [1]

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Waterspouts on the beach of Kijkduin near The Hague, Netherlands on 27 August 2006.

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