Captain Robert Falcon Scott
, CVO, RN
(6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was a British Royal Navy
officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic
regions: the Discovery Expedition
of 1901–1904 and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition
of 1910–1913. On the first expedition, he set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S and discovered the Antarctic Plateau
, on which the South Pole is located. On the second venture, Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole
on 17 January 1912, less than five weeks after Roald Amundsen
's Norwegian expedition
. On their return journey, Scott's party discovered plant fossils
, proving Antarctica was once forested and joined to other continents. A planned meeting with supporting dog teams from the base camp failed, despite Scott's written instructions, and at a distance of 150 miles from their base camp and 11 miles from the next depot, Scott and his companions died.
Before his appointment to lead the Discovery
Expedition, Scott had followed the career of a naval officer in the Royal Navy. In 1899, he had a chance encounter with Sir Clements Markham
, the president of the Royal Geographical Society
, and thus learned of a planned Antarctic expedition, which he soon volunteered to lead. Having taken this step, his name became inseparably associated with the Antarctic, the field of work to which he remained committed during the final 12 years of his life. Read more...