Consonants can be geminated by any preceding vowel except long non-close vowels, and is most noticeable in fortis plosives and when they are in intervocalic positions. For instance, the plosives in these pairs are lengthened so: lob–lobby, shunt–shunting and sit–city. In clusters, the first of any fortis elements is selected, e.g. /t/ in shunting or /s/ in nasty, or simply the first consonant when there is no fortis element as in lovely, where /v/ is lengthened.
Unstressed long vowels tend to be shortened, as seen in free wheel[fri ˈwiːl].
Sometimes, under the same environment as geminating consonants, short vowels can be lengthened as in casserole[ˈkaːsəroːl].
The HAPPY vowel is tense, but unlike Received Pronunciation, it is long [iː], as in the FLEECE vowel (see Happy tensing).
Vowels corresponding to unstressed /ɪ/ in RP are as follows:
/ɪ/ in the inflectional suffixes -ed and -es;
/ə/ in the suffix -est;
/iː/ in prefixes like anti- and poly-.
There is no contrastive NEAR vowel. Depending on word, it is replaced by either FLEECE (in polysyllables), a disyllabic sequence of FLEECE and COMMA/iːə/ (in monosyllables) and a monosyllabic sequence /jøː/ when word initial (including hear and here, where the /h/ is generally dropped).
As in many other southern Welsh accents, the NURSE vowel is rounded and fronted to [øː]. However, a small minority of speakers realise it as [əɾ ~ əɹ].
The horse–hoarse merger is absent in PTE, hence the words horse/ɒː/ and hoarse/oː/ are kept distinct. /oː/ is found in fortress and important, where the horse vowel may be found in other dialects that keep the distinction.
/ə/ is open-mid [ɜ] in stressed positions. When unstressed, it may be slightly raised to mid [ə].
The THOUGHT vowel is mainly /ɒː/. Exceptions are before /l/ and /st/, as in all or exhaust, as well as the word saucepan, where it is replaced by the LOT vowel /ɒ/. However long /ɒː/ does appear before the cluster /ld/ and the word palsy.
The trap–bath split is nearly absent, although the word bath along with path, laugh and its derivatives, ghastly and last(ly) have a long PALM/aː/, yet just like in Northern England, the remainder of BATH words are short /a/.
The TRAP words bad, bag and man are often found with long /aː/.
Diphthongs of PTE are /ɪʊ, eɪ, oʊ, ʌɪ, ʌʊ, ɒɪ/. PRICE words are mostly pronounced with /ʌɪ/, but there also exists a marginal /aɪ/ which appears in a small number of words, such as Dai and aye.
PTE, like Welsh dialects such as Abercraf English, has preserved several diphthong–monophthong distinctions that other varieties have not. They include:
A distinction between /ɪʊ/ and /uː/, corresponding to the GOOSE vowel in other dialects. Thus the pairs blue/blew and grue/grew are not homophones.
When a word is spelt with an ⟨o⟩, the corresponding vowel is /uː/. It also occurs in the words insurance and surety.
The spellings ⟨u⟩, ⟨ue⟩ and ⟨ui⟩ following ⟨r⟩ are typically pronounced /uː/.
/uː/ can also be found in the word blue, and the sequence ⟨luC⟩, such as flute, lunatic and Pluto
/ɪʊ/ is found otherwise, such as crew or glue.
The sequence /juː/ in most dialects will be rendered as /jɪʊ/ in word-initial position and after ⟨y⟩, such as use and youth. You and its derivatives can be pronounced either as /jɪʊ/ or /ɪʊ/. /ɪʊ/ is otherwise found for all other positions.
Another distinction for the FACE and GOAT lexical sets, thus the minimal pairs pain/pane and toe/tow (see Long mid mergers). They are generally diphthongised as /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ when the spelling contains ⟨i⟩/⟨y⟩ and ⟨u⟩/⟨w⟩ respectively and monophthongised as /eː/ and /oː/ elsewhere. However, these are subject to several exceptions:
The FACE vowel is always diphthong word-finally or preceding a vowel. It is further seen in the suffix sequence ⟨-atiV⟩, thus café, mosaic and patience are always /eɪ/. It is usually a diphthong before a nasal (strange and came), however proper names do have a monophthong (Cambridge and James).
The prepositions on, by, for are used idiomatically, in a way that makes it characteristic of a south Wales accent, as in by here/there. Phrasal examples include what is on this? (what's the matter with this), there's times on him/her (he/she is in a temper), what's the time by you (what is an appropriate time for you), you can't go by him/her (You cannot depend on him/her) and there's gratitude for you (you are appreciated).