This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Popular Alternative

Popular Alternative

Alternativa Popolare
PresidentPaolo Alli
Founded18 March 2017
Preceded byNew Centre-Right
HeadquartersVia Arcione 71
00186 Rome
IdeologyChristian democracy
Liberal conservatism
Political positionCentre to centre-right
European affiliationEuropean People's Party
International affiliationnone
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party
Chamber of Deputies
0 / 630
Senate
0 / 315
European Parliament
0 / 73
Regional
Councils
10 / 897
Website
www.alternativapopolare.it

Popular Alternative (Italian: Alternativa Popolare, AP) is a Christian-democratic political party in Italy that was founded on 18 March 2017 after the dissolution of New Centre-Right (NCD),[1] one of the two parties that emerged at the break-up of The People of Freedom (PdL, the main Italian centre-right party from 2008 to 2013).

"Popular" is a reference to popolarismo, the Italian variety of Christian democracy. The party has been a member of the European People's Party (EPP) since its foundation, having inherited the membership of the NCD.

The party's founder was Angelino Alfano, a former protége of Silvio Berlusconi and secretary of PdL (2011–2013) who has served as Minister of Justice (Berlusconi IV Cabinet, 2008–2011), Interior (Letta and Renzi Cabinets, 2013–2016) and Foreign Affairs (Gentiloni Cabinet, 2016–present). In December 2017 Alfano announced that he would not stand in the 2018 general election and the party suffered the split of a large centre-right faction, whose members wanted to re-align with the centre-right coalition. The rump of the party continued its alliance with the Democratic Party, by formally entering the centre-left coalition, and, with Alfano's backing, Beatrice Lorenzin, Minister of Health since 2013, became AP's de facto leader.[2]

In 2019 what remained of the party made a right-wing turn and formed an alliance with The People of Family.

History

Origins and background

In November 2013 The People of Freedom (PdL), the centre-right party led by Silvio Berlusconi, was transformed back into Forza Italia (FI). A group of dissidents, led by Angelino Alfano, opposed the move and launched the New Centre-Right (NCD).[3] Up to then, Alfano had been national secretary of the PdL and Berlusconi's protégé. Since its foundation, the NCD was part of the Italian governments successively led by Enrico Letta, Matteo Renzi and Paolo Gentiloni, all three members of the Democratic Party (PD), and Alfano served as Minister of the Interior and Foreign Affairs.

Foundation and early splits

On 18 March 2017 the NCD was dissolved into Popular Alternative (AP).[4] Alfano's aim was to build a centre-right alliance with FI, while being at odds with Lega Nord (LN) and the Brothers of Italy (FdI), deemed "populist".[5] Alfano also proposed a primary election to select the centre-right candidate for Prime Minister.[6]

Virtually all NCD's leading members (including Maurizio Lupi, Roberto Formigoni, Beatrice Lorenzin, Fabrizio Cicchitto, Antonio Gentile, Gabriele Albertini, Laura Bianconi, Giovanni La Via and Francesco Colucci) followed Alfano in the new party, while Maurizio Sacconi joined Stefano Parisi's Energies for Italy (EpI).[7][8][9]

Since its foundation AP was abandoned by five deputies (four re-joining FI, one joining the PD) and four senators (one joining FI, another the FdI and two the Federation of Freedom, FdL), while two deputies switched from the Liberal Popular Alliance (ALA).[10][11] One of the deputies who left the party was Enrico Costa, who also resigned as minister of Regional Affairs from Paolo Gentiloni's government[12][13][14] and aimed at forming a "liberal centre" with FI.[15]

Road to the 2018 general election

In the run-up of the 2018 general election AP, which was soundly defeated in the 2017 Sicilian regional election, was divided in three camps: those who wanted an alliance with the PD (Lorenzin and Cicchitto), those who proposed to run as a stand-alone list (Lupi) and those who were keen on returning with the centre-right coalition (Formigoni). The decision by the party's national board was postponed several times.[16][17][18][19] In the meantime, Alfano announced that he would not stand in the election.[20][21]

On 12 December 2017 AP's national board approved a consent settlement, under which the two parliamentary groups would continue to be active in order to prepare the electoral participation of the two main factions: the one led by Lorenzin and Cicchitto (backed by Alfano) with the centre-left (under the "Popular Alternative" name), the one led by Lupi and Formigoni with the centre-right (reviving the "New Centre-Right" banner).[22][23] A few days later Gentile replaced Lupi as coordinator.[24]

On 19 December the group around Lupi and the former AP members close to Costa formed Us with Italy (NcI), a pro-Berlusconi centrist electoral list within the centre-right coalition, along with Direction Italy (DI), Civic Choice (SC), Act! (F!), Popular Construction (CP) and the Movement for the Autonomies (MpA).[25][26][27] The list was later enlarged to the Union of the Centre (UdC)[28][29][30] and Identity and Action (IdeA),[31][32] with the goal of overcoming the 3% threshold under a new electoral law.

On 29 December AP formed the Popular Civic List (CP), a centrist electoral list within the centre-left coalition, along with Italy of Values (IdV), the Centrists for Europe (CpE), Solidary Democracy (DemoS), the Union for Trentino (UpT), Italy is Popular (IP) and minor parties/groups, and Lorenzin was chosen as leader.[33][34][35] Contextually, Gentile stepped down from coordinator and announced his return to FI, while continuing to serve as undersecretary in Gentiloni's government.[36]

2018 general election and decline

CP obtained a mere 0.5%, but the rump of AP, led by Lorenzin, had two elects to the Chamber from single-seat constituencies: Lorenzin herself and Gabriele Toccafondi. NcI scored a little better with 1.3% of the vote and a handful of former AP members, notably including Lupi, were elected in single-seat constituencies.

In September 2018 Alfano stepped down from AP presidency and was replaced by Paolo Alli.

In the run-up to the 2019 European Parliament election the party formed a joint list with The People of Family,[37][38][39] a social-conservative party. However, the party was deeply fractured, as Lorenzin seemed to be supportive of the PD,[40][41] while former spokesperson Valentina Castaldini stood as candidate for FI.[42]

In September 2019 Lorenzin joined the PD,[43][44] while Toccafondi was a founding member of Renzi's Italia Viva party.[45][46]

Ideology and factions

The party's ideology is that of the NCD, as the former is the perfect continuation of the latter. Despite being home to some social democrats (Reformism and Freedom, We Reformers), the party was mainly a Christian-democratic party with a social-conservative streak. According to Corriere della Sera, differently from FI, NCD's stances on the "so-called ethical issues" (abortion, LGBT rights, etc.) were "closer to those of the European traditionalist right" and "thus not very compatible with those of the EPP's parties in big countries such as (Germany)".[47] However, the party voted in favor of civil unions, whereas most FI members voted against it.[48] The NCD was also criticised by some Catholic associations for not opposing enough the teaching of gender studies in schools.[49] In addition, the NCD, as part of centre-left governments, proved more progressive than FI on the management of illegal immigration, which was negatively evaluated by Berlusconi's party.[50] Precisely for these and other reasons, several NCD politicians left the party to either form Identity and Action (IdeA) led by Gaetano Quagliariello or re-joined FI (e.g. Nunzia De Girolamo, Renato Schifani and Massimiliano Salini),[51] in both cases re-aligning with the FI-led centre-right coalition.[52] Some of the formerly NCD-affiliated factions or think tanks are now affiliated to AP:

Electoral results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election year Votes % Seats +/− Leader
2018 into Popular Civic 0.54
2 / 630
Beatrice Lorenzin
Senate of the Republic
Election year Votes % Seats +/− Leader
2018 into Popular Civic 0.52
0 / 315
Beatrice Lorenzin

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election year Votes % Seats +/– Leader
2019 114,531[a] 0.43
0 / 76
Paolo Alli
  1. ^ In a joint list with The People of Family.

Regional Councils

Region Election year Votes % Seats +/−
Aosta Valley 2018 N/A N/A
0 / 35
Piedmont 2014 49,059 (7th)[a] 3.5
0 / 50
Lombardy 2018 20,668 (14th)[b] 0.4
0 / 80
South Tyrol 2018 N/A N/A
0 / 35
Trentino 2018 N/A N/A
0 / 35
Veneto 2015 37,937 (10th) 2.0
1 / 51
Increase 1
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2018 N/A N/A
0 / 49
Emilia-Romagna 2014 31,635 (7th)[a] 2.6
0 / 50
Liguria 2015 9,269 (8th) 1.7
1 / 50
Increase 1
Tuscany 2015 15,837 (8th) 1.2
0 / 41
Marche 2015 21,049 (7th) 4.0
1 / 31
Increase 1
Umbria 2015 9,285 (9th) 2.6
0 / 20
Lazio 2018 6,073 (16th)[b] 0.2
0 / 50
Abruzzo 2019 N/A N/A
0 / 31
Molise 2018 N/A N/A
0 / 21
Campania 2015 133,753 (5th) 5.9
1 / 51
Increase 1
Apulia 2015 101,817 (7th) 6.4
3 / 51
Increase 3
Basilicata 2019 N/A N/A
0 / 21
Calabria 2014 47,574 (6th) 6.1
3 / 30
Increase 3
Sardinia 2019 N/A N/A
0 / 60
Sicily 2017 80,366 (10th) 4.2
0 / 70
  1. ^ a b In a joint list with Union of the Centre.
  2. ^ a b Into Popular Civic List.

Leadership

References

  1. ^ "Ncd finisce, nasce Alternativa Popolare – Politica". 18 March 2017.
  2. ^ f.ridolfi (17 December 2017). "Alleanza Popolare, Gentile neo coordinatore nazionale «Beatrice Lorenzin è la nostra leadership di riferimento»". Il Quotidiano del Sud.
  3. ^ Nicolas Bonnet (2015). "Silvo's Party". In Agnès Alexandre-Collier; François Vergniolle De Chantal (eds.). Leadership and Uncertainty Management in Politics: Leaders, Followers and Constraints in Western Democracies. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-1-137-43924-6.
  4. ^ "Ncd si scioglie, Alfano battezza "Alternativa Popolare"". 18 March 2017.
  5. ^ "Alfano, FI sta con lepenisti, centrodestra non-innovabile".
  6. ^ "Ncd addio, Alfano lancia Alternativa popolare: primarie per la leadership".
  7. ^ "Sacconi lascia Alfano e approda a Energie per l'Italia. Parisi: adesione strada altarnativa alla sinistra – ILFOGLIETTONE.ITILFOGLIETTONE.IT". ilfogliettone.it.
  8. ^ "Sacconi si schiera con Parisi insieme in Energie per l'Italia – Regione – Il Mattino di Padova". 20 March 2017.
  9. ^ "Nuovo polo in costruzione, gran traffico al centro (attorno a Parisi e Fitto)". 20 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Camera.it – XVII Legislatura – Deputati e Organi Parlamentari – Composizione gruppi Parlamentari". camera.it.
  11. ^ "senato.it – Senato della Repubblica senato.it – Variazioni nei Gruppi parlamentari". senato.it.
  12. ^ "Governo, si è dimesso ministro Enrico Costa: "Niente ambiguità"". 19 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Enrico Costa si dimette: Gentiloni perde pezzi. L'ex ministro verso Forza Italia. Alfano: "Inevitabile e tardivo" – Il Fatto Quotidiano". 19 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Perché si è dimesso il ministro Enrico Costa, centrista, tennista e non-palindromo".
  15. ^ "Costa lascia il governo Via al partito centrista che nasce contro Alfano".
  16. ^ "Andare da soli o allearsi con il Pd? Un'istruttoria per decidere. Alfano: "Se alleati, Renzi non sarà il nostro candidato premier" (di B. Acquaviti)". L’Huffington Post. 24 November 2017.
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ "Con Renzi, Berlusconi o da soli. La lotta per la sopravvivenza degli alfaniani". Linkiesta. 4 December 2017.
  19. ^ "Ap, alfaniani spaccati in tre. Verso una doppia scissione. Tutti i nomi". Affaritaliani.it.
  20. ^ Stefanoni, Franco (12 June 2017). "Elezioni, Alfano: «Non mi ricandido. Ma non lascio la politica»". Corriere della Sera.
  21. ^ "Elezioni, Angelino Alfano: "Non mi ricandiderò in parlamento e non sarò ministro. Renzi? Non ci ho parlato"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 6 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Alternativa Popolare, il partito si scioglie: "È una separazione consensuale". Per ora i gruppi parlamentari restano uniti – Il Fatto Quotidiano". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 12 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  23. ^ "Alternativa Popolare, 'separati in casa' fino a fine legislatura" – via www.ilgiornale.it.
  24. ^ [2][dead link]
  25. ^ "Nasce "Noi con l'Italia", la lista dei centristi pro-Berlusconi". Repubblica.it. 19 December 2017.
  26. ^ ""Noi con l'Italia", ecco la quarta gamba del centrodestra: ex FI, leghisti espulsi e alfaniani pentiti". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 19 December 2017.
  27. ^ Curridori, Francesco. "Nasce Noi con l'Italia, la 'quarta gamba' del centrodestra". ilGiornale.it.
  28. ^ "Udc-Noi con l'Italia, è accordo. Sulla lista torna lo scudo crociato". Affaritaliani.it.
  29. ^ Falci, Giuseppe Alberto (30 December 2017). "Nasce la stampella centrista di Forza Italia". Corriere della Sera.
  30. ^ Greco, Anna Maria. "Berlusconi si appella ai delusi dalla politica: "Sarà sfida coi 5 Stelle"". ilGiornale.it.
  31. ^ "La tela Fitto-Cesa si allarga su 'Idea' di Gaetano Quagliariello". Affaritaliani.it.
  32. ^ Redazione (5 January 2018). "Saremo noi a garantire l'autosufficienza al centrodestra. Parla Gaetano Quagliariello". Formiche.net.
  33. ^ "Elezioni, Renzi attacca "l'innaturale alleanza popolari-populisti". Orlando chiede scelte condivise". Repubblica.it. 29 December 2017.
  34. ^ "Centrosinistra, c'è anche il terzo mini-alleato del Pd: Civica Popolare guidata dalla Lorenzin. Simbolo? Una margherita – Il Fatto Quotidiano". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 29 December 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  35. ^ "Nasce "Civica Popolare", lista centrista alleata con il Pd: Lorenzin alla guida". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  36. ^ "Antonio Gentile, il sottosegretario lascia Ap e vota Forza Italia. "Ma resta al governo. Indecoroso spettacolo" – Il Fatto Quotidiano". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 31 December 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  37. ^ [www.alternativapopolare.it]
  38. ^ [www.isimbolidelladiscordia.it]
  39. ^ [www.secoloditalia.it]
  40. ^ [www.agenpress.it]
  41. ^ [www.agenzianova.com]
  42. ^ [www.ilsussidiario.net]
  43. ^ La scelta di Lorenzin: “Entro nel Pd”
  44. ^ Beatrice Lorenzin entrerà nel Partito Democratico
  45. ^ Partito di Renzi, ecco la lista dei 40 deputati e senatori che passano a Italia Viva
  46. ^ «Italia Viva»: la lista dei (primi) 41 parlamentari che seguono Renzi
  47. ^ "Pd-azzurri: asse sui diritti (senza Ncd)". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  48. ^ "Unioni civili sono legge: M5s si astiene. Lega e Fdi contro. Renzi: "E' un giorno di festa". Le destre: "Referendum"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 11 May 2016.
  49. ^ "GENDER A SCUOLA: NELLA RIFORMA IL TRUCCO C'E' MA NON SI VEDE". 27 June 2015.
  50. ^ Neve, Giovanni. "Migranti, Berlusconi: "Un accordo con la Libia è l'unica soluzione"". ilGiornale.it.
  51. ^ [www.ilsussidiario.net] (25 September 2015). "ADDIO NCD/ Massimiliano Salini lascia Lupi e torna in Forza Italia".
  52. ^ "Renato Schifani torna in Forza Italia". LaStampa.it.
  53. ^ "Il clan politico di Cl si attovaglia per spartirsi la torta dell'Expo". Mentiinformatiche.com. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  54. ^ "Federazione Cristiano Popolari, l'on.Baccini ad Avellino per il nuovo Centrodestra" (in Italian). Irpinia24.it. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  55. ^ "Noi Riformatori Per Il Nuovo Centrodestra". Noiriformatori.it. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.