|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||29 October 1591|
|Papacy ended||30 December 1591|
|Ordination||11 March 1544|
|Created cardinal||12 December 1583|
by Pope Gregory XIII
|Birth name||Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti|
|Born||20 July 1519|
Bologna, Papal States
|Died||30 December 1591 (aged 72)|
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Innocent|
Pope Innocent IX (Latin: Innocentius IX; 20 July 1519 – 30 December 1591), born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 October to 30 December 1591.
He studied at the University of Bologna - which was pre-eminent in jurisprudence — where he obtained a doctorate in both civil and canon law in 1544. He was later ordained to the priesthood on 11 March 1544 and was appointed a canon of the church of Saints Gervasio and Protasio of Domodossola in 1547.
He travelled to Rome and he became the secretary to Cardinal Nicolò Ardinghelli before entering the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, brother of the Duke of Parma and grandson of Pope Paul III (1534–1549), one of the great patrons of the time. The cardinal, who was the Archbishop of Avignon, sent Facchinetti there as his ecclesiastical representative and subsequently recalled him to the management of his affairs at Parma, where he was acting governor of the city, from 1556 to 1558. He was also made the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura in 1559 and held that post for a year.
In 1560, Facchinetti was named as the Bishop of Nicastro, in Calabria, and in 1562 was present at the Council of Trent. He was the first bishop to actually reside in the diocese in three decades. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) sent him as papal nuncio to Venice in 1566 to further the papal alliance with Spain and Venice against the Turks, which ultimately resulted in the victory of Lepanto in 1571. He was recalled from Venice in 1572 and was made the Prior Commendatario of S. Andrea di Carmignano in the diocese of Padua from 1576 to 1587.
Relinquishing his see to pursue his career in Rome in 1575 and also because of health reasons, he was named the Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1572. He occupied that post until he was made a cardinal.
Pope Gregory XIII made him a cardinal on 12 December 1583 as the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati and he was to receive the red hat and title on 9 January 1584. Pope Gregory XIV made him the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura in 1591.
|Papal styles of|
Pope Innocent IX
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Even before Pope Gregory XIV died, Spanish and anti-Spanish factions were electioneering for the next pope. Philip II of Spain's (r. 1556–1598) high-handed interference at the previous conclave was not forgotten: he had barred all but seven cardinals. This time the Spanish party in the College of Cardinals did not go so far, but they still controlled a majority, and after a quick conclave they raised Facchinetti to the papal chair as Pope Innocent IX. It took three ballots to elect him as pope. Facchinetti received 24 votes on 28 October but was not successful in that ballot to be elected as pope. He received 28 votes on 29 October in the second ballot while the third saw him prevail.
The cardinal protodeacon Andreas von Austria crowned Innocent IX as pontiff on 3 November 1591. He elevated two cardinals to the cardinalate in the only papal consistory of his papacy on 18 December 1591.
Mindful of the origin of his success, Innocent IX supported, during his two months' pontificate, the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France (r. 1589–1610) in the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598), where a papal army was in the field. His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes.
His grandnephew Giovanni Antonio Cardinal Facchinetti de Nuce, Jr., was one of two cardinals appointed during the weeks of Innocent IX's pontificate. A later member of the Cardinalate was his great-grandnephew Cesare Facchinetti (made a Cardinal in 1643).
Innocent IX died in the early morning of 30 December 1591. He was buried in the Vatican grottoes in a simple tomb.
On 18 December, the pope made a pilgrimage of Rome's seven pilgrimage churches, despite being ill, and caught a cold as a result. This became a heavy cough combined with a fever that led to his death.
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|Catholic Church titles|
| Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
29 October – 30 December 1591