|Polity type||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic with an executive presidency|
|Constitution||Constitution of South Africa|
|Name||National Council of Provinces|
|Presiding officer||Amos Masondo, Chairperson of the National Council of Provinces|
|Presiding officer||Thandi Modise, Speaker of the National Assembly|
|Head of State and Government|
|Name||Cabinet of South Africa|
|Current cabinet||Second Cabinet of Cyril Ramaphosa|
|Deputy leader||Deputy President|
|Name||Judiciary of South Africa|
|Chief judge||Mogoeng Mogoeng|
|Supreme Court of Appeal|
|Chief judge||Mandisa Maya|
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The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The President of South Africa serves both as head of state and as head of government. The President is elected by the National Assembly (the lower house of the South African Parliament) and must retain the confidence of the Assembly in order to remain in office. South Africans also elect provincial legislatures which govern each of the country's nine provinces.
Since the end of apartheid in 1994 the African National Congress (ANC) has dominated South Africa's politics. The ANC is the ruling party in the national legislature, as well as in eight of the nine provinces (Western Cape is governed by the Democratic Alliance). The ANC received 62.15% of the vote during the 2014 general election. It had received 62.9% of the popular vote in the 2011 municipal election. The main challenger to the ANC's rule is the Democratic Alliance, led by Mmusi Maimane (previously by Helen Zille), which received 22.23% of the vote in the 2014 election. Other major political parties represented in Parliament include the Economic Freedom Fighters and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which mainly represents Zulu voters. The formerly dominant New National Party, which both introduced and ended apartheid through its predecessor the National Party, disbanded in 2005 to merge with the ANC. Jacob Zuma served as President of South Africa since May 9, 2009 until his resignation in February 2018. Zuma was replaced by Cyril Ramaphosa. The country's 2019 general election was held on May 8.
South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the President of South Africa, elected by parliament, is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of Parliament, the Council of Provinces and the National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Government is three-tiered, with representatives elected at the national, provincial and local levels.
Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution. This constitution required the Constituent Assembly (CA) to draft and approve a permanent constitution by 9 May 1996.
The Government of National Unity (GNU) established under the interim constitution ostensibly remained in effect until the 1999 national elections. The parties originally comprising the GNU – the African National Congress (ANC), the National Party (NP), and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) – shared executive power. On 30 June 1996, the NP withdrew from the GNU to become part of the opposition.
General elections take place every 5 years. The first fully multi-racial democratic election was held in 1994, the second in 1999, the third in 2004, the fourth in 2009, and the most recent in 2014. Until 2008, elected officials were allowed to change political party, while retaining their seats, during set windows which occurred twice each electoral term, due to controversial floor crossing legislative amendments made in 2002. The last two floor crossing windows occurred in 2005 and in 2007.
After the 2009 elections, the ANC lost its two-thirds majority in the national legislature which had allowed it to unilaterally alter the constitution.
The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) are in a formal alliance with the ruling ANC (the so-called Tripartite Alliance), and thus do not stand separately for election.
|list||African National Congress||11,436,921||62.15||3.75||249||15|
|list||Democratic Alliance||4,091,584||22.23||[a] 4.62||89||[a] 18|
|list||Economic Freedom Fighters||1,169,259||6.35||New||25||New|
|list||Inkatha Freedom Party||441,854||2.40||2.15||10||8|
|list||National Freedom Party||288,742||1.57||New||6||New|
|list||United Democratic Movement||184,636||1.00||0.16||4||0|
|list||Freedom Front Plus||165,715||0.90||0.07||4||0|
|list||Congress of the People||123,235||0.67||6.75||3||27|
|list||African Christian Democratic Party||104,039||0.57||0.24||3||0|
|list||African Independent Congress||97,642||0.53||New||3||New|
|list||Pan Africanist Congress||37,784||0.21||0.07||1||0|
|list||African People's Convention||30,676||0.17||0.04||1||0|
|list||United Christian Democratic Party||21,744||0.12||0.26||0||2|
|list||Azanian People's Organisation||20,421||0.11||0.11||0||1|
|list||Bushbuckridge Residents Association||15,271||0.08||New||0||New|
|list||Independent Civic Organisation||14,472||0.08||New||0||New|
|list||Workers and Socialist Party||8,331||0.05||New||0||New|
|list||Kingdom Governance Movement||6,408||0.03||New||0||New|
|list||Keep It Straight and Simple Party||4,294||0.02||0.01||0||0|
|list||Pan Africanist Movement||3,815||0.02||0.01||0||0|
|list||First Nation Liberation Alliance||3,297||0.02||New||0||New|
|Total votes cast||18,654,457||100.00|
The constitution's bill of rights provides extensive guarantees, including equality before the law and prohibitions against discrimination; the right to life, privacy, property, and freedom and security of the person; prohibition against slavery and forced labour; and freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and association. The legal rights of criminal suspects also are enumerated. It also includes wide guarantees of access of food, water, education, health care, and social security. The constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary, and, in practice, these provisions are respected.
Citizens' entitlements to a safe environment, housing, education, and health care are included in the bill of rights, and are known as secondary constitutional rights. In 2003 the constitutional secondary rights were used by the HIV/AIDS activist group the Treatment Action Campaign as a means of forcing the government to change its health policy.
Violent crime, including violence against women and children, and organised criminal activity are at high levels and are a grave concern. Partly as a result, vigilante action and mob justice sometimes occur.
Some members of the police are accused of applying excessive force and abusing suspects in custody; as a result, the number of deaths in police custody remains a problem. In April 1997, the government established an Independent Complaints Directorate to investigate deaths in police custody and deaths resulting from police action.
There has been growing political intolerance and repression.
Many leaders of former bantustans or homelands have had a role in South African politics since their abolition.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi was chief minister of his Kwa-Zulu homeland from 1976 until 1994. In post-apartheid South Africa he has served as President of the Inkatha Freedom Party. He was a Minister in President Mandela's cabinet. He also served as acting President of South Africa when President Nelson Mandela was overseas.
General Constand Viljoen is a former chief of the South African Defence Force, who, as a leader of the Afrikaner Volksfront, sent 1500 of his militiamen to prop up the government of Lucas Mangope and to contest the termination of Bophuthatswana as a homeland in 1994. He co-founded the Freedom Front in 1994. He has retired from being a Member of Parliament.
Lucas Mangope, former chief of the Motsweda Ba hurutshe-Boo-Manyane tribe of the Tswana, ex-president of the former bantustan of Bophuthatswana, was the leader of the United Christian Democratic Party.