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Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLV C-35 at the launch pad (cropped).jpg
PSLV C35 on launch pad
FunctionMedium lift launch system
Country of origin India
Cost per launch$21-31 million ₹130-200 crore [1]
Height44 m (144 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
MassPSLV-G: 295,000 kg (650,000 lb)
PSLV-CA: 230,000 kg (510,000 lb)
PSLV-XL: 320,000 kg (710,000 lb)[2]
Payload to LEO3,800 kg (8,400 lb)[3]
Payload to SSO(620 km)1,750 kg (3,860 lb)[2]
Payload to Sub-GTO1,425 kg (3,142 lb)[2]
Payload to GTO1,200 kg (2,600 lb)[4]
Launch history
Launch sitesSriharikota
Total launches44
Partial failures1
First flightPSLV: 20 September 1993
PSLV-CA: 23 April 2007
PSLV-XL: 22 October 2008
Notable payloadsChandrayaan-1, Mars Orbiter Mission, Astrosat, SRE-1, NAVIC
Boosters (PSLV-G) – S9
No. boosters6
Thrust510 kN (110,000 lbf)
Specific impulse262 s (2.57 km/s)
Burn time44 seconds
Boosters (PSLV-XL) – S12
No. boosters6
Length12 m (39 ft)[5]
Diameter1 m (3.3 ft)[5]
Propellant mass12,200 kg (26,900 lb) each[5]
Thrust703.5 kN (158,200 lbf) [6]
Specific impulse262 s (2.57 km/s)
Burn time70 seconds [6]
First stage
Length20 m (66 ft)[5]
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)[5]
Propellant mass138,200 kg (304,700 lb) each[5][2]
Thrust4,846.9 kN (1,089,600 lbf) [6]
Specific impulse237 s (2.32 km/s) (sea level)
269 s (2.64 km/s) (vacuum)
Burn time110 seconds [6]
Second stage
Length12.8 m (42 ft)[5]
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)[5]
Propellant mass42,000 kg (93,000 lb) each[5]
Engines1 Vikas
Thrust803.7 kN (180,700 lbf) [6]
Specific impulse293 s (2.87 km/s)
Burn time133 seconds [6]
Third stage
Length3.6 m (12 ft)[5]
Diameter2 m (6.6 ft)[5]
Propellant mass7,600 kg (16,800 lb) each[5]
Thrust240 kN (54,000 lbf)
Specific impulse295 s (2.89 km/s)
Burn time83 seconds
Fourth stage
Length3 m (9.8 ft)[5]
Diameter1.3 m (4.3 ft)[5]
Propellant mass2,500 kg (5,500 lb) each[5]
Engines2 x L-2-5[7]
Thrust14.66 kN (3,300 lbf) [6]
Specific impulse308 s (3.02 km/s)
Burn time425 seconds

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is an expendable medium-lift launch vehicle designed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun-synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV in 1993, commercially available only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO).[8]

Some notable payloads launched by PSLV include India's first lunar probe Chandrayaan-1, India's first interplanetary mission, Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) and India's first space observatory, Astrosat.[2]

PSLV has gained credence as a small satellite launcher due its numerous multi-satellite deployment campaigns with auxiliary payloads usually ride sharing along an Indian primary payload. Most notable among these was the launch of PSLV C37 on 15 February 2017 successfully deploying 104 satellites in sun-synchronous orbit, tripling the previous record held by Russia for most number of satellites sent to space on a single launch.[9][10]

Payloads can be integrated in tandem configuration employing a Dual Launch Adapter.[11][12] Smaller payloads are also placed on equipment deck and customized payload adapters.[13]


Studies to develop a vehicle capable of delivering 600 kg payload to 550 km Sun-synchronous orbit from SHAR began in 1978. Among 35 proposed configurations, four were picked and by November 1980, a vehicle configuration with two strap-ons on a core booster (S80) with 80 tonne solid propellant loading each, a liquid stage with 30 tonne propellant load (L30) and an upper stage called Perigee-Apogee System (PAS) was being considered.[14][15][16][17]

By 1981, confidence grew in remote sensing spacecraft development with launch of Bhaskara-1 and the PSLV project objectives were upgraded to have vehicle deliver 1000 kg payload in 900 km SSO. As technology transfer of Viking rocket engine firmed up, a new lighter configuration shifting away from relying on three large solid boosters was proposed by team led by APJ Abdul Kalam and eventually selected.[18][19] Funding was approved in July 1982 for finalized design employing a single large S125 solid core as first stage with six 9 tonne strap-ons (S9) derived from SLV-3 first stage, liquid fueled second stage (L33) and two solid upper stages S7 and S2. This configuration needed further improvement to meet the orbital injection accuracy requirements of IRS satellites and hence solid terminal stage (S2) was replaced with a pressure fed liquid fueled stage (L1.8 or LUS) powered by twin engines derived from roll control engines of first stage. Apart from increasing precision, liquid upper stage also absorbed any deviation in performance of solid third stage. Final configuration of PSLV D1 to fly in 1993 was (6 × S9 + S125) + L37.5 + S7 + L2.[15][16]

The inertial navigation systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the Reaction control systems (RCS) are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) at Mahendragiri near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. The solid propellant motors are processed at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR) at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh which also carries out launch operations.

The PSLV was first launched on 20 September 1993. The first and second stages performed as expected, but an attitude control problem led to the collision of the second and third stages at separation, and the payload failed to reach orbit.[20] After this initial setback, the PSLV successfully completed its second mission in 1994.[21] The fourth launch of PSLV suffered a partial failure in 1997, leaving its payload in a lower than planned orbit. By Nov 2014 the PSLV had launched 34 times with no further failures.[22] (Although launch 41: Aug 2017 PSLV-C39 was unsuccessful.[2])

PSLV continues to support Indian and foreign satellite launches especially for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight. In November 2013, it was used to launch the Mars Orbiter Mission, India's first interplanetary probe.[23]

ISRO is planning to privatise the operations of PSLV and will work through a joint venture with private industries. The integration and launch will be managed an industrial consortium through Antrix Corporation.[24]

In June 2018, the Union Cabinet approved 6,131 crore (US$850 million) for 30 operational flights of the PSLV scheduled to take place between 2019 and 2024.[25]

Vehicle description

PSLV scale model.

The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage, one of the largest solid rocket boosters in the world, carries 138 t (304,000 lb) tonnes of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-bound (HTPB) propellant and develops a maximum thrust of about 4,800 kilonewtons (1,100,000 lbf). The 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) diameter motor case is made of maraging steel and has an empty mass of 30,200 kilograms (66,600 lb).[7] Pitch and yaw control during first stage flight is provided by the Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System (SITVC), which injects an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate into the nozzle to produce asymmetric thrust. The solution is stored in two cylindrical aluminium tanks strapped to the solid rocket motor and pressurised with nitrogen. Roll control is provided by two small liquid engines on opposite sides of the stage, the Roll Control Thrusters (RCT).

On the PSLV and PSLV-XL, first stage thrust is augmented by six strap-on solid boosters. Four boosters are ground-lit and the remaining two ignite 25 seconds after launch. The solid boosters carry 9 t (20,000 lb) or 12 t (26,000 lb) (for PSLV-XL configuration) propellant and produce 510 kN (110,000 lbf) and 719 kN (162,000 lbf) thrust respectively. Two strap-on boosters are equipped with SITVC for additional attitude control.[7] The PSLV-CA uses no strap-on boosters.

The second stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 t (91,000 lb) of liquid propellant – unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidiser. It generates a maximum thrust of 800 kN (180,000 lbf). The engine is hydraulically gimbaled (±4°) to provide pitch and yaw control, while roll control is provided by two hot gas reaction control motors.

The third stage uses 7 t (15,000 lb) of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-based solid propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 240 kN (54,000 lbf). It has a Kevlar-polyamide fibre case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flex-bearing-seal gimbaled nozzle (±2°) thrust vector engine for pitch & yaw control. Roll control is provided by the fourth stage reaction control system (RCS).[7]

The fourth stage is powered by regeneratively cooled twin engines,[26] burning monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON). Each engine generates 7.4 kN (1,700 lbf) thrust and is gimbaled (±3°) to provide pitch, yaw & roll control during powered flight. Coast phase attitude control is provided by RCS. The stage carries up to 2,500 kg (5,500 lb) of propellant in the PSLV and PSLV-XL and 2,100 kg (4,600 lb) in the PSLV-CA.[27]

PSLV is developed with a group of wide-range control units.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Pitch SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Yaw SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Roll RCT and SITVC in 2 PSOMs HRCM Hot Gas Reaction Control Motor PS4 RCS PS4 RCS


ISRO has envisaged a number of variants of PSLV to cater to different mission requirements. There are currently two operational versions of the PSLV — the core-alone (PSLV-CA) without any strap-on motors, and the (PSLV-XL) version, with six extended length (XL) strap-on motors carrying 12 tonnes of HTPB based propellant each.[28] These configurations provide wide variations in payload capabilities up to 3,800 kg (8,400 lb) in LEO and 1,800 kg (4,000 lb) in sun-synchronous orbit.

PSLV-G (retired)

The standard or 'Generic' version of the PSLV, PSLV-G had four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately and six strap-on motors (PSOM or S9) with 9 tonne propellant loading. It had capability to launch 1,678 kg (3,699 lb) to 622 km (386 mi) into sun-synchronous orbit. PSLV-C35 was last operational launch of PSLV-G before its discontinuation.[29][30][31]


The PSLV-CA, CA meaning "Core Alone", model premiered on 23 April 2007. The CA model does not include the six strap-on boosters used by the PSLV standard variant but two SITVC tanks with Roll Control Thruster modules are still attached to the side of the first stage with addition of two cylindrical aerodynamic stabilizers.[27][31] The fourth stage of the CA variant has 400 kg (880 lb) less propellant when compared to its standard version.[27] It currently has capability to launch 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) to 622 km (386 mi) Sun synchronous orbit.[32]


PSLV-XL is the upgraded version of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its standard configuration boosted by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters with 12 tonne propellant load.[27] Weighing 320 t (710,000 lb) at lift-off, the vehicle uses larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL or S12) to achieve higher payload capability.[33] On 29 December 2005, ISRO successfully tested the improved version of strap-on booster for the PSLV. The first use of PSLV-XL was the launch of Chandrayaan-1 by PSLV C11. The payload capability for this variant is 1,800 kg (4,000 lb) to SSO.[32] Other launches include the RISAT (Radar Imaging Satellite) and GSAT-12.[34] All three PSLV launches in 2017 were of the -XL.[2]

Variant Launches Successes Failures Partial failures
PSLV (Standard) 12 10 1 1
PSLV-CA (Core Alone) 12 12 0 0
PSLV-XL (Extended)[2] 20 19 1 0
Total till September 2018[2] 44 41 2 1
PSLV-3S (Concept)

PSLV-3S was conceived as a three-staged version of PSLV with its six strap-on boosters and second liquid stage removed. The total lift-off mass of PSLV-3S was expected to be 175 tonnes with capacity to place 500 kg in 550 km low Earth orbit.[32][35][36][37][38]

Launch history

As of 11 April 2018 the PSLV has made 44 launches, with 41 successfully reaching their planned orbits, two outright failures and one partial failure, yielding a success rate of 93% (or 95% including the partial failure).[39] All launches have occurred from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, known before 2002 as the Sriharikota Range (SHAR).


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
D1 20 September 1993
PSLV-G First India IRS-1E 846 kg Failure
Maiden flight; Attitude control failure at second stage separation.[40]
D2 15 October 1994
PSLV-G First India IRS-P2 804 kg Success
D3 21 March 1996
PSLV-G First India IRS-P3 920 kg Success
C1 29 September 1997
PSLV-G First India IRS-1D 1250 kg Partial failure
First operational flight; Fourth stage under-performed resulting in lower than planned orbit. Satellite used own propulsion to move to correct orbit.[43]
C2 26 May 1999
PSLV-G First India Oceansat-1
Germany DLR-Tubsat
South Korea Kitsat-3
1050 kg
45 kg
107 kg
First launch to have foreign satellites, and first to carry multiple satellites.[44][45]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C3 22 October 2001
PSLV-G First India TES
Europe PROBA
Germany BIRD
1108 kg
94 kg
92 kg
First multi-orbit mission. TES and BIRD were injected into a nominal 568 km circular sun synchronous polar orbit, PROBA was injected into a 568 X 638 km elliptic orbit. Orbit was raised using RCS thrusters on fourth stage.[46][47]
C4 12 September 2002
PSLV-G First India MetSat-1 (Kalpana-1) 1060 kg Success
India's first launch to GTO. GTO payload capability has reached 1200 kg from 2002 onward, compared to 1050 kg previously. First use of lightweight carbon composite payload adapter.[48][49][50]
C5 17 October 2003
PSLV-G First India RESOURCESAT-1 (IRS-P6) 1360 kg Success
Payload capability had been progressively increased by more than 600 kg since the first PSLV launch. Launch took place despite heavy rain.[51][52]
C6 5 May 2005
PSLV-G Second India Cartosat-1
1560 kg
42.5 kg
First PSLV launch from the second launch pad.[53]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C7 10 January 2007
PSLV-G First India Cartosat-2
India SRE-1
Indonesia LAPAN-TUBsat
Argentina PEHUENSAT-1
680 kg
500 kg
56 kg
6 kg
First flight of hardware upgrade, first launch of reentry capsule (SRE).[54]
C8 23 April 2007
PSLV-CA Second Italy AGILE
India AAM
352 kg
185 kg
First flight of the 'Core-Alone' configuration. ISRO's first commercial launch (foreign satellite as the main payload).[55][56]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C10 21 January 2008
PSLV-CA First Israel TecSAR 295 kg Success
ISRO's second commercial launch (foreign satellite as the main payload).[57][58]
C9 28 April 2008
PSLV-CA Second India Cartosat-2A
Germany RUBIN-8
Canada CanX-6/NTS
Canada CanX-2
Japan Cute-1.7+APD II
Netherlands Delfi-C3
Japan SEEDS-2
Germany COMPASS-1
690 kg
83 kg
8 kg
6.5 kg
3.5 kg
3 kg
2.2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
0.75 kg
C11 22 October 2008
PSLV-XL Second India Chandrayaan-1 1380 kg Success
First flight of the PSLV-XL configuration, first Indian Lunar probe.[61][62]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C12 20 April 2009
PSLV-CA Second India RISAT-2
300 kg
40 kg
India's first radar imaging satellite, RISAT.[63][64]
C14 23 September 2009
PSLV-CA First India Oceansat-2
GermanyLuxembourg Rubin 9.1
GermanyLuxembourgRubin 9.2
Switzerland SwissCube-1
Germany BeeSat
Germany UWE-2
Turkey ITUpSAT1
960 kg
8 kg
8 kg
1 kg
1 kg
1 kg
1 kg
Rubin 9.1 and 9.2 intentionally remained attached to the fourth stage. SwissCube-1 was the first Swiss satellite, and ITUpSAT1 was the first satellite to be constructed in Turkey.[65][66][67][68][69][70]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C15 12 July 2010
PSLV-CA First India Cartosat-2B
Algeria ALSAT-2A
Norway AISSat-1
Switzerland TIsat-1
694 kg
117 kg
6.5 kg
1 kg
0.95 kg
AISSat-1 and TIsat are part of NLS-6.[71][72][73][74][75][76][77]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C16 20 April 2011
PSLV-G First India ResourceSat-2
Singapore X-Sat
IndiaRussia YouthSat
1206 kg
106 kg
92 kg
C17 15 July 2011
PSLV-XL Second India GSAT-12 1410 kg Success
First use of Vikram flight computer.[79][80]
C18 12 October 2011
PSLV-CA First IndiaFrance Megha-Tropiques

India Jugnu
Luxembourg VesselSat-1

1000 kg
10.9 kg
3 kg
28.7 kg


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C19 26 April 2012
PSLV-XL First IndiaRISAT-1 1850 kg Success
C21 9 September 2012
PSLV-CA First France SPOT-6
720 kg
50 kg
15 kg
mRESINS tested avionics for future PSLV launches. ISRO's third commercial launch (foreign satellite as the main payload). ISRO's 100th mission.[84][85]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C20 25 February 2013
PSLV-CA First IndiaFrance SARAL
Canada Sapphire
Canada NEOSSat
Austria TUGSAT-1
Austria UniBRITE-1
United Kingdom STRaND-1
Denmark AAUSAT3
409 kg
148 kg
74 kg
14 kg
14 kg
6.5 kg
0.8 kg
TUGSAT-1 and UniBRITE were the first Austrian satellites.[86][87][88]
C22 1 July 2013
PSLV-XL First India IRNSS-1A 1425 kg Success
India's first regional navigation satellite.[89]
C25 5 November 2013
PSLV-XL First India Mars Orbiter Mission 1350 kg Success
India's first Mars mission.[90][91]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C24 4 April 2014
PSLV-XL First India IRNSS-1B 1432 kg Success
India's second regional navigation satellite.[92][93]
C23 30 June 2014
PSLV-CA First France SPOT-7
Canada CanX-4
Canada CanX-5
Germany AISAT
Singapore VELOX-1
714 kg
15 kg
15 kg
14 kg
7 kg
ISRO's fourth commercial launch (foreign satellite as the main payload).[94]
C26 16 October 2014
PSLV-XL First India IRNSS-1C 1425.4 kg Success
Seventh PSLV-XL and third Navigation Satellite launch.[95][96]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C27 28 March 2015
PSLV-XL Second India IRNSS-1D 1425 kg Success
Eighth PSLV-XL and fourth Navigation Satellite launch.[97]
C28 10 July 2015
PSLV-XL First United Kingdom UK-DMC3A
United Kingdom UK-DMC3B
United Kingdom UK-DMC3C
United Kingdom CBNT-1
United Kingdom DeOrbitSail
447 kg
447 kg
447 kg
91 kg
7 kg
At the time it was the heaviest commercial mission (1439 kg) successfully accomplished using a launch vehicle assembled by ISRO.[98][99]
C30 28 September 2015
PSLV-XL First India Astrosat
Indonesia LAPAN-A2
Canada exactView 9
United States Lemur-2 #1 Joel
United States Lemur-2 #2 Peter
United States Lemur-2 #3 Jeroen
United States Lemur-2 #4 Chris
1650 kg
68 kg
5.5 kg
4 kg
4 kg
4 kg
4 kg
Launch of India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory and ISRO's first launch of US satellites.[100]
C29 16 December 2015
PSLV-CA First Singapore TeLEOS-1
Singapore VELOX-C1
Singapore VELOX-II
Singapore Kent Ridge-1
Singapore Galassia
Singapore Athenoxat-1[101]
400 kg
123 kg
13 kg
78 kg
3.4 kg
Commercial launch of 6 Singaporean satellites. Fourth stage re-ignition demonstrated successfully after payload deployment.[102][103][15]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C31 20 January 2016
PSLV-XL Second India IRNSS-1E 1425 kg Success
IRNSS-1E, fifth navigation satellite of the seven satellites constituting the IRNSS space segment launched. It carries two types of payloads – navigation payload and ranging payload. This is the eleventh time ‘XL’ configuration is being flown.[31][104][105]
C32 10 March 2016
PSLV-XL Second India IRNSS-1F 1425 kg Success
IRNSS-1F, sixth navigation satellite of the seven satellites constituting the IRNSS space segment launched. It carries two types of payloads – navigation payload and ranging payload. This is the twelfth time ‘XL’ configuration is being flown. IRNSS-1F carries Corner Cube Retroreflectors for laser ranging.[106] Launch initially scheduled for 10:30 was delayed by one minute to avoid space debris.[107]
C33 28 April 2016
PSLV-XL First India IRNSS-1G 1425 kg Success
IRNSS-1G, last navigation satellite of the seven satellites constituting the IRNSS space segment launched. India's own navigational system, the set-up for which was completed will be called NAVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation)[108][109][110][111][112]
C34 22 June 2016
PSLV-XL Second India Cartosat-2C
Indonesia LAPAN-A3
Germany BIROS
United States SkySat Gen2-1
Canada GHGSat-D
Canada M3MSat
India Swayam
India SathyabamaSat
United States 12 × Flock-2P Dove (satellite)
727.5 kg
120 kg
130 kg
110 kg
25.5 kg
85 kg
1 kg
1.5 kg
12 × 4.7 kg
ISRO's Cartosat-2C and 19 other satellites launched.[113][114][115][116][117][118]
C35 26 September 2016
PSLV-G First India ScatSat-1
Algeria ALSAT-2B
Algeria ALSAT-1B
United States Pathfinder-1
India Pratham
Canada CanX-7 (NLS-19)[119]
Algeria ALSAT-1N
India PISat
371 kg
117 kg
103 kg
44 kg
10 kg
8 kg
7 kg
5.25 kg
ISRO's longest PSLV satellite launch mission. First mission of PSLV in which it launched its payloads into two different orbits.[120][121][122][123][124][125]
C36 7 December 2016
PSLV-XL First India Resourcesat-2A 1235 kg Success


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C37 15 February 2017
PSLV-XL First India Cartosat-2D
India INS-1A
India INS-1B
United Arab Emirates Nayif-1 CubeSats
Kazakhstan Al Farabi-1
Netherlands PEASSS
Switzerland DIDO-2
United States Doves Flock-3P
United States Lemur-2
730 kg
8.4 kg
9.7 kg
1.1 kg
1.7 kg
3 kg
4.3 kg
4.2 kg
4.7 kg x 88 Nos.
4.6 kg x 8 Nos.
PSLV-C37 successfully carried and deployed a record 104 satellites in the sun-synchronous orbit.[132][133][134][135][136][137]
C38 23 June 2017
PSLV-XL First India Cartosat-2E[140]
India NIUSAT[141]
Japan CESAT-1[142]
United States Lemur-2 × 8
United States, Australia, Israel Blue, Red, Green Diamonds
Italy, Germany Max Valier Sat[143]
Latvia Venta-1
Italy D-Sat[144]
Finland Aalto-1
Germany COMPASS-2/Dragsail QB50
United Kingdom InflateSail QB50
Lithuania LituanicaSAT-2 QB50
Austria PEGASUS QB50
China NUDTSat QB50
Czech Republic VZLUSAT1 QB50
United Kingdom UCLSat QB50
Slovakia skCUBE
United States CICERO-6
United States Tyvak-53b (PacSciSat[145])
United States KickSat Sprites × 6 (All of them flown with Venta-1 and Max Valier Sat)
727 kg
15 kg
60 kg
4 kg x 8 Nos.
18 kg
15 kg
7.5 kg
4.5 kg
4 kg
4 kg
4 kg
3 kg
4 kg
2 kg
2 kg
2 kg
2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
1 kg
Post mission PSLV fourth stage (PS4) was lowered to 350 km altitude and carried Ionization Density and Electric field Analyzer (IDEA) payload by Space Physics Laboratory to measure electron density and electric field measurements in the F region of the ionosphere[146][147][148][149][150][151]
C39 31 August 2017
PSLV-XL Second India IRNSS-1H 1425 kg Failure
Payload fairing (heat shield) failed to separate, causing the satellite to remain inside the fairing with the payload dispenser detaching the satellite internally. Second PSLV failure in 24 years, the first one being PSLV-D1.[155][156][157][158]


Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
C40 12 Jan 2018
PSLV-XL First India Cartosat-2F[159]
India INS-1C
Canada LEO-1[160]
United Kingdom Carbonite-2 aka (VividX2)
Finland ICEYE X1
United States Landmapper-BC3
United States Arkyd 6A
United States CICERO-7
United States 4x Doves Flock-3p'[161]
United States 4x Lemur-2[162]
France PicSat
South Korea SIGMA (KHUSAT-03)[163]
South Korea CANYVAL-X (Tom and Jerry)
South Korea CNUSail 1
South Korea KAUSAT 5
South Korea STEP Cube Lab
United States MicroMAS-2
United States Fox-1D
United States 4x SpaceBEE
United States Tyvak-61C
United States DemoSat-2
710 kg
~120 kg
11 kg
168 kg
100 kg
?? kg
10 kg
10 kg
10 kg
4x ?? kg
4x ?? kg
3.5 kg
3.8 kg
4 kg
4 kg
3.2 kg
1 kg
3.8 kg
1.5 kg
4x ?? kg
?? kg
?? kg
C41 11 April 2018
PSLV-XL First India IRNSS-1I ~1425 kg sub GTO Success
C42 16 September 2018
PSLV-CA First United Kingdom NovaSAR-S (445 kg)
United Kingdom SSTL S1-4 (444 kg)
889kg Low Earth SSTL Success

See also


  1. ^ "SURPLUS MISSILE MOTORS: Sale Price Drives Potential Effects on DOD and Commercial Launch Providers". U.S. Government Accountability Office. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
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  17. ^ Raj, Gopal (2000). "8. PSLV: Achieving Operational Launch Capability". Reach For the Stars: The Evolution of India's Rocket Programme. Viking. ISBN 978-0670899500. About a year later, an important change was made, with the solid fourth stage being substituted by a liquid stage. This change was considered necessary since the accuracy with which the IRS satellites had to be put into orbit — within 15 km in terms of orbital height and within 0.1 degree of the desired orbital inclination — could not be achieved with a solid stage.
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External links