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Pirozhki

Pirozhki
Piroshki.JPG
Baked piroshki stuffed with meat, mushroom, rice and onions
Alternative namesPiroshki, pyrizhky
CourseAppetizer, main, dessert
Place of originRussia
Serving temperatureWarm or hot
Main ingredientsYeast dough, various fillings
VariationsMultiple

Pirozhki[1] (Russian: пирожки, plural form of pirozhok; Ukrainian: пиріжки, pyrizhky) are Russian, Belarusian[2] and Ukrainian[3][4][5][6] baked or fried yeast-leavened boat-shaped buns with a variety of fillings.[7][8] Pirozhki are a popular street food and comfort food in Russia and a stereotypical part of Russian culture.[9]

Terminology

The stress in pirozhki is on the last syllable: [pʲɪrɐʂˈkʲi]. Pirozhok[10] (About this soundпирожок , singular) is the diminutive form of Russian pirog, which means a full-sized pie.[11] Pirozhki are not to be confused with the pierogi (a cognate term), which are called varenyky in Ukrainian and Russian.

Variations

A typical pirozhok is boat- or rarely crescent-shaped, made of yeast-leavened dough, with filling completely enclosed. Similar Russian pastries (pirogs) of other shapes include coulibiac, kalitka, rasstegai, and vatrushka.

Pirozhki are either fried or baked. They come in sweet or savory varieties. Common savory fillings include ground meat, mashed potato, mushrooms, boiled egg with scallions, or cabbage. Typical sweet fillings are fruit (apple, cherry, apricot, lemon), jam, or quark.

Baked pirozhki may be glazed with egg to produce golden color. Also they may be decorated with strips of dough.

Pirozhki are usually hand-sized. A smaller version may be served with soups.

Regional varieties

Puff pastry pirozhki

The Balkans

The Greek variety piroski (Greek: πιροσκί) is popular in parts of Greece influenced by eastern cuisine and in most big cities, where they are sold as a type of fast food. The Greek piroskia come deep-fried with many different stuffings.[12]

In Serbia the local variety are cylindrical pastries called пирошка/piroška (piroshka). They are stuffed with fillings such as ground spiced meat mix of pork and veal or cottage cheese, and with kulen, tomato sauce and herbs. Alternatively they are made from breaded crepes with variety of fillings.

The Baltic region

In Latvia crescent-shaped buns of leavened dough called speķrauši (literally, "fatback tarts") or speķa pīrāgi (often referred to in diminutive speķa pīrādziņi or colloquially simply pīrāgi or pīrādziņi) are traditionally filled with smoked fatback and onion. Other fillings are also possible.[13] However the name pīrāgi is not exclusive to these buns, but can refer to variety of other pastries, such as pies and turnovers. Pīrāgi were often eaten as lunch by farmers and shepherds working the fields.

Estonians too have this tradition. The pirukad are fairly small in size and have regional variations in respect to fillings. Pirukad are sometimes accompanied by bouillon. Many recipes exist, with meat, cabbage, carrots, rice, egg and other fillings and filling mixtures also being used. The Latvian bacon and onion version is known to Estonians, but is not as common. One can also encounter sweet fillings, although savory pirukad predominate.

Central Asia

Pirozhki are common as fast food on the streets of the Central Asian countries in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, where they were introduced by the Russians. They are also made by many Russians and non-Russians at home.

East Asia

Pirozhki is also very common as fast food in Mongolia, and it is made throughout the country by families at home.

Caucasus

The Russian variant of pirozhki is a common fast food in Armenia and Azerbaijan. In Armenia it often contains a potato or seasoned meat filling. In Azerbaijan, it is often eaten as a dessert and is commonly filled with cream.

Iran

Iranian homemade pirashki and fries

The Iranian version, pirashki (Persian: پیراشکیpirāški), is often eaten as a dessert or as a street food. It is commonly filled with cream, but potato and meat fillings are also available. The Iranian sweet shops in Los Angeles have invented other versions such as chocolate and blueberries.

Japan

A Japanese version, called ピロシキ (piroshiki), are predominantly fried, use fillings such as ground meat, boiled egg, bean noodles, and spring onion, and are commonly breaded with panko before frying, in the manner of Japanese menchi-katsu. Another popular variation is filled with Japanese curry and is quite similar to karē-pan, which is itself said to be inspired by pirozhki.

The Americas

Varieties of pirozhki were brought to the Americas by Volga Germans. Known today as bierock, pirok or runza, they belong to several regional cuisines in the United States, Canada and Argentina. The populous Russian diaspora which came to the Americas as a consequence of the Russian Revolution and Civil War brought with them the more classic Russian versions of piroshki.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Also transliterated as piroshki
  2. ^ Patricia Levy; Michael Spilling (2009). Belarus. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761434115.
  3. ^ Yakovenko, Svitlana (2018-10-14). Ancient Grains: Ukrainian Recipes. Sova Books.
  4. ^ "Pyrizhky (Ukrainian Cabbage Buns) – Claudia's Cookbook". Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  5. ^ Olha7397. "Ukrainian Pyrizhky With Meat Filling Stuffed Buns) Recipe - Genius Kitchen". www.geniuskitchen.com. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  6. ^ "Traditional foods". www.encyclopediaofukraine.com. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  7. ^ "piroshki | Definition of piroshki in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  8. ^ Grimes, William, ed. (2004-09-01). Eating Your Words: 2000 Words to Tease Your Taste Buds (1st ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195174069.
  9. ^ Darra Goldstein (1999). A Taste of Russia: A Cookbook of Russian Hospitality. Russian Information Service. p. 54. ISBN 9781880100424.
  10. ^ Also transliterated as piroshok
  11. ^ The full-sized pie can also be called by the diminutive name for purely stylistic reasons.
  12. ^ Greek piroski Archived 2008-03-02 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Latvian pīrāgi Archived 2008-06-28 at the Wayback Machine

References

  • Piroshki or Pirozhki in Larousse Gastronomique, The New American Edition (Jenifer Harvey Lang, ed.), Crown Publishers, New York (1988), p. 809.
  • Piroghi or Pirozhki in Larouse Gastronomique, first English language edition (Nina Froud and Charlotte Turgeon, eds.), Paul Hamlyn, London (1961), p. 740-741.
  • Pirog in The Oxford Companion to Food (Alan Davidson), Oxford University Press (1999), p.p. 609-610.
  • Speķa rauši in "Latviska un Moderna Virtuve" (The Latvian and Modern Kitchen), Fischbach D.P. Camp, Germany, 1949; pg. 24, original in Latvian and translated into English