Phillip Allen Sharp (born June 6, 1944) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist who co-discovered RNA splicing. He shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard J. Roberts for "the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence".      He has been selected to receive the 2015  Othmer Gold Medal.
Sharp's current research focuses on small RNAs and other types of
non-coding RNAs. His laboratory works to identify the target mRNAs of microRNAs (miRNAs), and has discovered a class of miRNAs that are produced from sequences adjacent to transcription start sites. His laboratory also studies how miRNA gene regulation functions in angiogenesis and cellular stress.  
Sharp was born in
Falmouth, Kentucky, the son of Kathrin (Colvin) and Joseph Walter Sharp. Sharp married Ann Holcombe in 1964. They have three daughters. 
Sharp studied at
Union College and majored in chemistry and mathematics, afterwards completing his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1969. Following his Ph.D., he did his postdoctoral training at the  California Institute of Technology until 1971, where he studied plasmids. Later, he studied  gene expression in human cells at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory as a senior scientist under James Dewey Watson.
In 1974, he was offered a position at
MIT by biologist Salvador Luria. He was director of MIT's Center for Cancer Research (now the  Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research) from 1985 to 1991; head of the Biology department from 1991 to 1999; and director of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research from 2000 to 2004. He is currently a professor of Biology and member of the Koch Institute, and has been an  Institute Professor since 1999. Sharp co-founded  Biogen, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, and Magen Biosciences, and has served on the boards of all three companies.
Awards and honors
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Sharp has won several notable awards, including the 2004
National Medal of Science, the 1999  Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences of the American Philosophical Society, and the 1988  Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Thomas R. Cech.
Sharp is an elected member of several academic societies, including the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the  American Association for the Advancement of Science, the  National Academy of Sciences, and the  Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. He was elected a  Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2011.  In 2012, he was elected the president of the  American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Pendleton County, Kentucky—Sharp's birthplace—named its current middle school after him.
In October 2010 Sharp participated in the
USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students got to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize-winning scientist over a brown-bag lunch. Sharp is also a member of the  USA Science and Engineering Festival's Advisory Board. In 2011, he was listed at #5 on the  MIT150 list of the top 150 innovators and ideas from MIT.
He is an editorial advisor to
Xconomy, and is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at  The Scripps Research Institute. He has also served on the Faculty Advisory Board of the MIT-Harvard Research Journal and MIT Student Research Association. 
Petersen C.P.; Bordeleau M.E.; Pelletier J.; Sharp P.A. (17 February 2006). "Short RNAs Repress Translation after Initiation in Mammalian Cells". Mol Cell. 21 (4): 533–42. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.01.031. PMID 16483934.
Tantin D.; Schild-Poulter C.; Wang V.; Hache R.J.; Sharp P.A. (1 December 2005). "The Octamer Binding Transcription Factor Oct-1 is a Stress Sensor". Cancer Res. 65 (23): 10750–8. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2399. PMID 16322220.
Miskevich F.; Doench J.G.; Townsend M.T.; Sharp P.A.; Constantine-Paton M. (15 April 2006). "RNA Interference of Xenopus NMDAR NR1 in vitro and in vivo". J Neurosci Methods. 152 (1–2): 65–73. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.08.010. PMID 16182372.
Hong J.H.; Hwang E.S.; McManus M.T.; Amsterdam A.; Tian Y.; Kalmukova R.; Mueller E.; Benjamin T.; Spiegelman B.M.; Sharp P.A.; Hopkins N.; Yaffe M.B. (12 August 2005). "TAZ, a Transcriptional Modulator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation". Science. 309 (5737): 1074–8. doi: 10.1126/science.1110955. PMID 16099986.
Johnson D.M.; Yamaji S.; Tennant J.; Srai S.K.; Sharp P.A. (28 March 2005). "Regulation of Divalent Metal Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Following Exposure to Non-haem Iron". FEBS Lett. 579 (9): 1923–9. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.02.035. PMID 15792797.
Neilson J.R.; Sharp P.A. (April 2005). "Herpesviruses Throw a Curve Ball: New Insights into microRNA Biogenesis and Evolution". Nat Methods. 2 (4): 252–4. doi: 10.1038/nmeth0405-252. PMID 15782215.
Lee K.B.; Sharp P.A. (7 December 2004). "Transcription-dependent Polyubiquitination of RNA Polymerase II Requires Lysine 63 of Ubiquitin". Biochemistry. 43 (48): 15223–9. doi: 10.1021/bi048719x. PMID 15568815.
Mansfield J.H.; Harfe B.D.; Nissen R.; Obenauer J.; Srineel J.; Chaudhuri A.; Farzan-Kashani R.; Zuker M.; Pasquinelli A.E.; Ruvkun G.; Sharp P.A.; Tabin C.J.; McManus M.T. (October 2004). "MicroRNA-responsive 'Sensor' Transgenes Uncover Hox-like and Other Developmentally Regulated Patterns of Vertebrate MicroRNA Expression". Nat. Genet. 36 (10): 1079–83. doi: 10.1038/ng1421. PMID 15361871.
The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
"The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
Sharp, P (2011). "Q&A: Phillip Sharp on biomedical convergence". Cancer Discovery. 1 (5): 370. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-ND11-08. PMID 22586619.
Musgrave, E (2010). "Advancing science across the disciplines: An interview with Nobel Laureate Phillip A. Sharp, PhD". Clinical and Translational Science. 3 (3): 69–70. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00197.x. PMC . 5350715 PMID 20590673.
Sharp, P. A.; Sharp, P (2005). "Phillip Sharp discusses RNAi, Nobel Prizes and entrepreneurial science". Drug Discovery Today. 10 (1): 7–10. doi: 10.1016/S1359-6446(04)03329-X. PMID 15676292.
Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2004). "Phillip Sharp--Nobel Prize for discovery of "split genes "". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 79 (6): 727. doi: 10.1016/s0025-6196(11)62621-9. PMID 15182083.
Raju, T. N. (2000). "The Nobel chronicles. 1993: Richard John Roberts (b 1943) Phillip a Sharp (b 1944)". Lancet. 355 (9220): 2085. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)73547-9. PMID 10885388.
"Othmer Gold Medal". Science History Institute . Retrieved . 4 February 2015
Autobiography at the Nobel site
Sharp's Research at MIT Archived December 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Thackray, Arnold; Brock, David C.; Ashiya, Mona (20 November 2003). Phillip A. Sharp, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by Arnold Thackray, David C. Brock, and Mona Ashiya at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts on 28 January, 29 May, and 20 November 2003 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-28 . Retrieved . 2013-10-08 CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
"Phillip A. Sharp - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
^ a b c d
"Curriculum Vitae - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D." Sharp Lab . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
^ a b c
"Short Bio - Phillip A. Sharp". Sharp Lab . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
^ Biogen Idec, Inc. (2008). "Proxy statement for annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 19, 2008 at 9:00 A.M., local time", 7.
"The President's National Medal of Science Recipient Details - Phillip A. Sharp". National Science Foundation . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences Recipients". American Philosophical Society . Retrieved . 27 November 2011
"The Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology or Biochemistry". Columbia University Medical Center . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Alphabetical Index of Active Members" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 5 November 2013 . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Fellows". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014 . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Phillip A. Sharp". National Academy of Sciences . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Directory: IOM Member - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D." Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014 . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Professor Philip Sharp ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
"Royal Society". Royal Society . Retrieved . 2010-03-20
AAAS.org Staff Report (13 March 2012). "Phillip A. Sharp, Molecular Biologist and Nobel Laureate, Chosen to Serve as AAAS President-Elect". American Association for the Advancement of Science . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Lunch with a Laureate". Archived from the original on April 21, 2010 . Retrieved . 2010-12-09 . usasciencefestival.org (2010)
^ Furthermore, Sharp participates in the Distinguished Lecture Series of the annual
Research Science Institute (RSI), a summer research program for high school students held at MIT. Advisors Archived 2010-04-21 at the Wayback Machine. usasciencefestival.org
"MIT 150: The Top 50". boston.com . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"About". xconomy.com . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
"Board of Scientific Governors". The Scripps Research Institute . Retrieved . 12 November 2014
Center for Oral History. "Phillip A. Sharp". . Science History Institute Thackray, Arnold; Brock, David C.; Ashiya, Mona (20 November 2003). Phillip A. Sharp, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by Arnold Thackray, David C. Brock, and Mona Ashiya at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts on 28 January, 29 May, and 20 November 2003 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.