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Phenuiviridae is a virus family belonging to the order Bunyavirales established by ICTV in 2016. Ruminants, camels, humans, and mosquitoes are the known hosts of members of this negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus family. Of the four genera, Phlebovirus is the only genera that includes viruses that infect humans and are associated with known disease in humans (e.g. Rift Valley Fever Phlebovirus).
Members of Phenuiviridae are enveloped viruses with helical capsid morphology. Envelope glycoproteins of these viruses are distributed with icosahedral symmetry (T=12). Phenuiviridae is a (-ssRNA) negative single stranded RNA virus family. Its genome is segmented into three pieces: L segment (encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase), M segment, and S segment.
Some members of the family have ambisense gene encoding on the S segment (nucleocapsid proteins). The M segment encodes a polyprotein (envelope glycoproteins) that are cleaved by host proteases. Multiple different proteins are encoded on the M segment made possibly by leaky scanning.
RNA transcripts are capped through cap-snatching, but not polyadenylated. Translation is terminated by a hairpin sequence at the end of each RNA transcript.
|Yichang insect goukovirus|
|Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus|
|Wuhan fly phasivirus|
|Wutai mosquito phasivirus|
|Punta toro phlebovirus|
|Rift Valley fever phlebovirus*|
|Sandfly fever Naples phlebovirus|
|Tenuivirus||Echinochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus|
|Iranian wheat stripe tenuivirus|
|Maize stripe tenuivirus|
|Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus|
|Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus|
|Rice stripe tenuivirus|
|Urochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus|
Table legend: "*" denotes type species.
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