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Periodontology or periodontics (from Greek περί peri "around"; and ὀδούς odous "tooth", genitive ὀδόντος odontos) is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. A person who practices this specialty is known as a periodontist.
Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm accumulation of the red complex bacteria (e.g., P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola) of the gingiva and teeth, combined with host immuno-inflammatory mechanisms and other risk factors that can lead to destruction of the supporting bone around natural teeth. Untreated, these diseases can lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. As of 2017[update], these continue to be one of the leading causes of tooth loss in adults.[where?] Daily brushing and flossing are a way to help prevent periodontal diseases.
Periodontology also involves the placement and maintenance of dental implants, including the treatment of peri-implantitis (inflammatory bone loss around dental implants). The etiology of peri-implantitis is thought to be very similar to periodontal disease.
Before applying to any postgraduate training program in periodontology, one must first complete a dental degree.
Although each European State has its own independent system, an umbrella organization—the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP)—has the ability to accredit post-graduate programs according to specific guidelines. The EFP awards a certificate of specialized training in periodontology, periodontics and implant dentistry to every successful European candidates after 3 years of full-time training in an accredited post-graduate program. The EFP organizes bi-annual meetings around Europe under the title EuroPerio where many thousands of dentists attend the sessions featuring over 100 of the worlds top perio speakers. The graduate programs that have been approved are the following: Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam , University of Bern, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education Jönköping, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, University Complutense in Madrid, University of Dublin, Trinity College, University of Strasbourg in France, Paris Diderot University at Rothschild hospital.
Australian programs are accredited by the Australian Dental Council (ADC) and are 3 years in length and culminate with either a Master's degree (MDS) or a Doctor of Clinical Dentistry degree (DClinDent). Fellowship can then be obtained with the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons, FRACDS (Perio).
Canadian programs are accredited by the CDAC[clarification needed] and are a minimum of three years in length and usually culminate with a master (MSc or MDent) degree. Graduates are then eligible to sit for the Fellowship exams with the Royal College of Dentists of Canada (FRCD(C)).
Periodontics is offered as a specialization field of dentistry in India. Periodontists attend a Master of Dental Surgery (M.D.S.) program affiliated with dental schools in India. The minimum qualification required for the M.D.S. degree is a Bachelor of Dental Surgery. A majority of dental schools in India offer M.D.S. degrees specializing in Periodontology. The course is three years duration and students are trained for implantology as well as diagnosis and treatment of peri implant diseases along with Periodontology.
The British Society of Periodontology exists to promote the art and science of periodontology. Their membership includes specialist practitioners, periodontists, general dentists, consultants and trainees in restorative dentistry, clinical academics, dental hygienists and therapists, specialist trainees in periodontology and many others.
Specialist training in periodontics in the UK is either a three-year full-time or four years at three days per week. At the end of the training, candidates are awarded a Master of Clinical Dentistry (MClinDent) before being entered on the specialist list held by the General Dental Council.
The American Dental Association (ADA) accredited programs are a minimum of three years in length. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, U.S.-trained periodontists are specialists in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases and oral inflammation, and in the placement and maintenance of dental implants. Many periodontists also diagnose and treat oral pathology. Historically, periodontics served as the basis for the specialty of oral medicine. Following successful completion of post-graduate training a periodontist becomes Board eligible for the American Board of Periodontology examination. Successful completion of board certification results in Diplomate status in the American Board of Periodontology.