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Pattachitra

Bengal Patachitra
Geographical indication
Extrait de Chandi Mangal de Hazra Chitrakar (Naya Bengale) (1439702942).jpg
Bengal Patachitra from Medinipur
Alternative names বাংলার পটচিত্র
Description Patachitra is an old traditional art of West Bengal
Type Arts of West Bengal
Area Medinipur, Kalighat area and etc., West Bengal
Country India
Registered 28 March, 2018
Material Cloth, Paper, Color, Theme, motif and others
Official website ipindiaservices.gov.in
Bengal Patachitra of Naya village in Paschim Medinipur,the traditional and mythological folk art of West Bengal
Pattachitra depicting Radha-Krishna

Pattachitra or Patachitra is a general term for traditional, cloth-based scroll painting,[1] based in the eastern Indian state, West Bengal[2] and Odisha.[3][4]

Significance of the name

In the Sanskrit language, "Patta" literally means "cloth" and "Chitra" means "picture". Most of these paintings depict stories of Hindu deities.[5]

Bengal Patachitra

Medinipur Patachitra
Patachitra of Naya village
Medinipur Patachitra
Patachitra of Naya village
Medinipur Patachitra
Goddess Durga and his family in Medinipur Patachitra
Kalighat Patachitra
Manasa in Kalighat Patachitra
The Bengal Patachitra

The Bengal Patachitra refers to the painting of West Bengal. It is a traditional and mythological heritage of West Bengal. The Bengal Patachitra is divided into some different aspects like Durga Pat, Chalchitra, Tribal Patachitra, Medinipur Patachitra, Kalighat Patachitra and etc.[6] The subject matter of Bengal Patachitra is mostly mythological, religious stories, folk lore and social. The Kalighat Patachitra, the last tradition of Bengal Patachitra is developed by Jamini Roy. The artist of the Bengal Patachitra is called Patua.[7]

Origin and History

Archaeological activities exhibition of Bengal Patachitra

Patachitra is known for its excellent play of colour. It is a traditional folk art form of rural Bengal. There are some controversial opinions about the dates of ancient Patas. But it has been suggested on the basis of historical themes connected with the accompanied songs like Patua Sangeet. It dates back to the Pre- Pala period which is still tucked away with small villages of Midnapore, Bankura, Purulia, Howrah, Hooghly and 24 Parganas. Bengal Patachitra is referred to in the Buddhist literature in 1st century A.D., in Haribansha in 2nd century, in Abhijnynasakuntalam and Malabikagnimitra in 4th century, Harashacharit and Uttalamcharit in 6th and 7th-8th centuries.[8]

In his book Folk Art of Bengal, author Ajitcoomar Mookerjee has mentioned that there are some Jadu-Patuas painting of mural style in the temples of Bankura District.[9]

Theme and Style

Aspects of painting

Technique

Colour

Use of natural color is one of the individual characteristics of the Bengal Patachitra. In general, blue, yellow, green, red, brown, black and white are used in the Patachitra of West Bengal. Chalk dust is used for white color, pauri for yellow color, cultivated indigo for blue, bhushakali for black and mete sindur for red color.[10]

Odisha Pattachitra

[11] Pattachitra is a traditional painting of Odisha, India.These paintings are based on Hindu mythology and specially inspired by Jagannath and Vaishnava sect.[12] All colours used in the Paintings are natural and paintings are made fully old traditional way by Chitrakaras that is Oriya Painter. Pattachitra style of painting is one of the oldest and most popular art forms of Odisha. The name Pattachitra has evolved from the Sanskrit words patta, meaning canvas, and chitra, meaning picture. Pattachitra is thus a painting done on canvas, and is manifested by rich colourful application, creative motifs and designs, and portrayal of simple themes, mostly mythological in depiction.[13] The traditions of pattachitra paintings are more than thousand years old.[14][15]

Origin and History

The painting the 'pattachitra' resemble the old murals of Odisha especially religious centres of Puri, Konark and Bhubaneshwar region, dating back to the 5th century BC. The best work is found in and around Puri, especially in the village of Raghurajpur.[16]

This old tradition of Odia painting still survives in the places like Puri, Raghurajpur, Paralakhemundi, Chikiti and Sonepur.In the past professionerise, there was no distinct separation between the master painters and master sculptors; so the possibility of a simultaneous origin of painting and sculptural art in Odisha can not be ruled out. Even today in Odisha, these two crafts are combined in one and these artists and known as Chitrakaras, their title remains mostly Mohapatra or Maharana. Strangely enough, painting appeared in Odisha rather later, several centuries after the construction of the great temples of Bhubaneswar, Puri and Konark.here exists a good number of paintings from 18th century onwards in many temples and Mathas especially in the southern districts of Odisha. Lord Jagannath in the present from is being taken as the origin of the Patta style. The colour schemes of the deities of Puri are quite similar to those of the Patta style. The oldest record of Patta Paintings does not probably go beyond the establishment of the present shrine of Shri Jagannath at Puri. It may be due to the fact that paintings do not survive like sculptures. The paints inside the shrines of Lord Jagannath at Puri make the date probable. The oldest classical marble paintings of Sitabanji at Keonjhar do not conform to the present style of Patta painting wholly. The wooden statues of the three deities are also covered with cloth and then overlaid with glue mixed with chalk, and then given paint only with four limited colours of red, yellow, white and black. The deities who are held in high esteem by the Oriyas and who inspire religion, life and activity of the people also carry with them a tradition of art and painting which is as old as the deities themselves. If the Savara origin of Jagannath is accepted, the date of the Patta paintings can be dated back to an earlier period. These paintings were originally substitutes for worship on days when the temple doors were shut for the 'ritual bath' of the deity.

Pattachitra are based on Hindu Mythology. Depicted here is a parade of the god Ganesha.

Theme and Style

The theme of Oriya painting centres round the Jagannath and the Vaishnava sect. Since beginning of Pattachitra culture, Lord Jagannath who was an incarnation of Lord Krishna has been the major source of inspiration. The subject matter of Patta Chitra is mostly mythological, religious stories and folk lore. Themes are chiefly on Lord Jagannath and Radha-Krishna, different "Vesas" of Shri Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra, temple activities, the ten incarnations of Vishnu basing on the 'Gita Govinda' of Jayadev, Kama Kujara Navagunjara, Ramayana, Mahabharata.[17] The individual paintings of gods and goddesses are also being painted. The Pattachitra style are mix of both folk and classical elements but leanings more towards folk forms. The dress style has Mughal influences. All of the poses have been confined to a few well-defined postures. These are not free from monotonous repetitions, though at times this is necessary to accentuate the narrative character of the style. The lines are bold and clean and angular and sharp. Generally there are no landscapes, perspectives and distant views. All the incidents are seen in close juxtaposition. The background on which the figures are represented, is delineated with decorations of flowers and foliages and is mostly painted in red colour. All the paintings are given decorative borders. The whole painting is conceived in the form of a design on a given canvas.

The themes may be classified into following categories[18]

  • Jagannath paintings
  • Vaishnav Paintings

a)Bhagabat paintings b)Ramayana paintings

  • Saiva paintings
  • Shakta paintings
  • Paintings as legends
  • Ragachitras
  • Bandhachitra
  • Yamapati and yatripatas – (sketches of puri temple) Ganjapa playing card paintings and other socials themes on paintings.
  • Navagunjara[19]

Technique

Pattachitra were inspired by Jagannath culture in Odisha

Traditionally the painters are known as chitrakars. A patta painter's home with all the members of family is his studio. Woman members prepare the glue, the canvas and apply colours what we call the fill-in, and give the final lacquer coating. The master hand, mostly the male member, draws the initial line and gives the final finishing. Patta paintings are done on small strips of cotton cloth. The canvas is prepared by coating the clothe with a mixture of chalk and gum made from tamarind seeds. Then it is rubbed by taking the help of two different stones and then the cloth is dried.The mixture of gum and chalk gives the cloth's surface a leathery finish on which the artists paint with vegetable, earth and stone colours.[20] The painters do not use pencil or charcoal for the preliminary drawings. They are so expert in the line that they simply draw directly with the brush either in light red or yellow. Then the colours are filled in. The final lines are drawn and the patta is given a lacquer coating to protect it from weather, thus making the painting glossy. This process of glazing or varnishing is quite interesting. The painting is held over a fireplace so that the back of the painting is exposed to heat. On the surface of the painting fine lacquer is applied.

Colour

In the 16th century, with the emergence of Bhakti movement the paintings of Radha and Krishna were painted in vibrant shades of orange, red and yellow. There are typical scenes and figures like Krishna, Gopis, elephants, trees and other creatures are seen in these paintings. Krishna is always painted in blue and Gopis in light pink, purple or brown colours.[21]

The painters use vegetable and mineral colours without going for factory made poster colours. They prepare their own colours.[22] White colour is made from the conch-shells by powdering, boiling and filtering in a very hazardous process. It requires a lot of patience. But this process gives brilliance and premanence to the hue. 'Hingula', a mineral colour, is used for red. 'Haritala', king of stone ingredients for yellow, 'Ramaraja' a sort of indigo for blue are being used. Pure lamp-black or black prepared from the burning of coconut shells are used.[23] There was no blue either cobalt or ultramarine in the earlier colour schemes. The colours used in the Patta paintings are primarily bright colours, limited to red, yellow, indigo, black and white. The brushes that are used by these 'Chitrakaras' are also indigenous and are made of hair of domestic animals. A bunch of hair tied to the end of a bamboo stick make the brush.[24] It is really a matter of wonder as to how these painters bring out lines of such precision and finish with the help of these crude brushes.

Palm leaf Pattachitra

Palm leaf pattachitra which is in Oriya language known as Tala Pattachitra drawn on palm leaf. First of all palm leaves are left for becoming hard after being taken from tree.Then these are sewn together to form like a canvas. The images are traced by using black or white ink to fill grooves etched on rows of equal-sized panels of palm leaf that are sewn together. These panels can also be easily folded like a fan and packed in a compact pile for better conservation.Often palm-leaf illustrations are more elaborated, obtaining by superimposing layers that are glued together for most of the surface, but in some areas can open like small windows to reveal a second image under the first layer.[25]

Geographical Indication of Pattachitra

Geographical indication of Patachitra is registered under to different state of India as the style and motif of West Bengal and Odisha Patachitra are so different. The Patachitra of West Bengal is registered as Bengal Patachitra[26][27][28] and the Patachitra of Odisha is registered as Orisha Pattachitra.[11][29]

Notes

  1. ^ SenGupta, pp. 13.
  2. ^ Rahaman, Md Motiur; Hom Choudhury, Mahuya; Sengupta, Sangita (2016-02-29). "VALIDATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION (G.I) REGISTRATION OF PATACHITRA OF WEST BENGAL- ISSUES AND CHALLENGES". 
  3. ^ [www.daricha.org]
  4. ^ "Patta Chitra". 
  5. ^ SenGupta, pp. 12.
  6. ^ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়, দেবাশিস. "পটচিত্রের চাহিদা বাড়ছে নবদ্বীপের রাসে". anandabazar.com. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  7. ^ Giusti, M. and Chakraborty, U. (ed.). Immagini Storie Parole. Dialoghi di formazione coi dipinti cantati delle donne Chitrakar del West Bengal. Mantova: Universitas Studiorum, 2014, ISBN 978-88-97683-39-1
  8. ^ Roy Niranjan (1973), The Patas and Patuas of Bengal. Indian Publications Calcutta, Page number 54-55 (Annexure C,V)
  9. ^ Mookerjee Ajitcoomar (1939), Folk Art of Bengal. university of calcutta, Page number 18-19 (Annexure C.Vll)
  10. ^ [ipindiaservices.gov.in]
  11. ^ a b [odisha.gov.in]
  12. ^ "Patta Chitra". 
  13. ^ [india.gov.in]
  14. ^ [craftorissa.com][permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Pattachitra Painting". archive.india.gov.in. 
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  17. ^ "Indian Art  » Blog Archive  » Patta Chitra Paintings". indianart.in. 
  18. ^ categories of Pattachitra Archived 2010-07-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ [www.devotionalstore.com]
  20. ^ The meticulous process of Pattachitra paintings
  21. ^ Radha,Krishna and Gopis in Pattachitra
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  23. ^ natural colours used in Pattachitra Archived 2010-07-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ colour brushes used in Pattachitra Archived 2010-07-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2010-03-26.  Palm leaf pattachitra
  26. ^ "Registered Gls | Geographical Indications | Intellectual Property India". www.ipindia.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-05-14. 
  27. ^ "Bengal handicrafts to get new fillip with GI tags". The Hindu. PTI. 2016-08-16. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-05-14. 
  28. ^ Roy, Tasmayee Laha (2016-08-22). "West Bengal seeks geographical indication tag for handicrafts". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-05-14. 
  29. ^ "Geographical Indications of India". ipindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 2013-08-26. 

Further reading

External links