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Pandanus amaryllifolius

Pandanus amaryllifolius
Pandan Leaf (Pandanus amaryllifolius) 1.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Pandanales
Family: Pandanaceae
Genus: Pandanus
Species:
P. amaryllifolius
Binomial name
Pandanus amaryllifolius
Synonyms[1]
  • Pandanus hasskarlii Merr.
  • Pandanus latifolius Hassk. nom. illeg.
  • Pandanus odorus Ridl.

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus, which is commonly known as pandan (/ˈpændən/), and is used widely in South Asian and Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring.

Occurence and habitat

Though it is known to be a coastal plant in Asia that grows best in marshes, it has never been found in the wild.[2] Maluku islands in Indonesia are a suspected a place of origin.

Botanical features

The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, found in the lower epidermal papillae[3]; the compound gives white bread, jasmine rice, and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers Vallaris glabra) their typical smell.[4] Though the plant is unknown in the wild, but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, blade-like leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, with flowers only growing very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings.[citation needed]

Culinary use

In Sri Lanka, it is called rampé and its grown almost in every household. Most of the Sri Lankan dishes use these leaves for aroma along with curry leaves. In India it is called annapurna leaves; in Bangladesh, it is called pulao pata (পোলাও পাতা ); and in the Maldives, it is called ran’baa along with the other variety of pandan there (Pandanus fascicularis), and is used to enhance the flavor of pulao, biryani, and sweet coconut rice pudding, or payesh if basmati rice is not used. It acts as a cheap substitute for basmati fragrance, as one can use normal, nonfragrant rice and with pandan the dish tastes and smells like basmati is used. The leaves are used either fresh or dried, and are commercially available in frozen form in Asian grocery stores of nations where the plant does not grow. They have a nutty, botanical fragrance that is used as a flavor enhancer in many Asian cuisines, especially in rice dishes, desserts, and cakes.[5]

The leaves are sometimes steeped in coconut milk, which is then added to the dish. They may be tied in a bunch and cooked with the food. They may be woven into a basket which is used as a pot for cooking rice. Pandan chicken, (Thai: ไก่ห่อใบเตย, kai ho bai toei), is a dish of chicken parts wrapped in pandan leaves and fried. The leaves are also used as a flavoring for desserts such as pandan cake and sweet beverages. Filipino cuisine uses pandan as a flavoring in some coconut milk-based dishes as well as desserts like buko pandan.[6] It is also used widely in rice-based pastries such as suman and numerous sweet drinks and desserts.[7]

Bottled pandan extract is available in shops, and often contains green food coloring.

Use in traditional medicine

P. amaryllifolius leaves have a number of local medicinal uses. Leaf extracts have been thought to reduce fever, relieve indigestion and flatulence, and act as a cardiotonic.[8][qualify evidence]

The leaves are used in perfume industry and also medicinally important as diuretic, anti-diabetic and for skin diseases.[9] Leaves are soaked in coconut oil for several days and the oil is then used for rheumatic problems. Infusion of leaves is taken internally as a sedative in rerestleness. In Thailand, this is a traditional medicine for treating diabetes.[10] Studies have established significant repellent activity of P. amaryllifolius against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana L.)[11], but similar effects against other species of cockroaches have not yet been looked into. It is said that taxi drivers in Singapore and Malaysia keep bunches of P. amaryllifolius) in their taxis to ward off cockroaches. P. amaryllifolius has the secondary benefit of adding visual and olfactory pleasure to humans. Traditionally, leaves are used as medicinal bbath for women after childbirth in Malaysia and also for hair wash. It is also used for preparing lotion along with ash and vinegar to treat measles, as purgative, in the treatment of leprosy, sore throat and as diuretic in Philippines.[12] In addition, leaf extract has been reported to possess antioxidant properties.[13] [14]Traditionally a mixture of Henna (Lawsonia inermis), Limau purut ([[Citrus hystrix]]), coconut milk, milk and P. amaryllifolius leaf are used to clean hair and to provide fragrance.[15] The leaves are used as food flavouring and in traditional medicine in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia.[16] Hot water extracts of the root of this plant (reported as P. odorus Ridl.) show hypoglycaemic activity, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid has been isolated as the active principle.[17][18][19] Some suggest that P. amaryllifolius essence can be a possible substitute to vanilla essence.[20]

Use as natural air freshener

The leaves possess a pleasant aroma and can be used as natural air fresheners.[21] In Thailand, cab drivers sometimes use pandan for this purpose.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  2. ^ Stone, BC (1978). "Studies in Malesian Pandanaceae XVII. On the taxonomy of 'Pandan Wangi' — a Pandanus cultivar with scented leaves". Econ Bot. 32(3): 285–293.
  3. ^ Wakte, Kantilal V.; Nadaf, Altafhusain B.; Thengane, Ratnakar J.; Jawali, Narendra (2009). "Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. cultivated as a spice in coastal regions of India". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 56 (5): 735–740. doi:10.1007/s10722-009-9431-5. ISSN 0925-9864.
  4. ^ Wongpornchai, S.; Sriseadka, T. & Choonvisase, S. (2003). "Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (2): 457–462. doi:10.1021/jf025856x. PMID 12517110.
  5. ^ Sukphisit, Suthon (9 December 2018). "Reading the leaves". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Buko Pandan Salad Recipe". Pinoy Recipe At Iba Pa. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  7. ^ IJsselstein. "Lyn's Recipes Corner". Buko Pandan Salad. Jeroen Hellingman. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  8. ^ N., Cheeptham; G.H.N., Towers. "Light-mediated activities of some Thai medicinal plant teas". Fitoterapia. 73 (7–8): 651–662. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  9. ^ Keller J (2001) Pandanaceae. In: Hanelt P, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (eds) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, vol 5. Springer, Berlin, pp 2816–2824
  10. ^ Ravindran PN, Balachandran I (2005) Underutilized medicinal species—III. Spice India 18(2):16–24
  11. ^ Ahmad FBH, Mackeen MM, Ali AM, Mashirun SR, Yaacob MM (1995) Repellency of essential oils against the domiciliary cockroach, Periplaneta americana L. Insect Sci Appl 16(3–4):391–393
  12. ^ Samy J, Sugumaran M, Kate LWL (2005) Herbs of Malaysia: an introduction to the medicinal, culinary, aromatic and cosmetic use of herbs. Federal Publications, Times Editions–Marshall Cavendish, Malaysia, pp 180–181
  13. ^ Jiang J (1999) Volatile composition of pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius). In: Shadidi F, Ho CT (eds) Flavour chemistry of ethnic foods. Kluwer, New York, pp 105–109
  14. ^ Thimmaraju, R; Bhagyalakshmi, N; Narayan, MS; Venkatachalam, L; Ravishankar, GA (2005). "In vitro culture ofPandanus amaryllifolius and enhancement of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the major flavouring compound of aromatic rice, by precursor feeding ofL-proline". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 85 (15): 2527–2534. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2286. ISSN 0022-5142.
  15. ^ Turner I (2007) Plants for your hair-Henna and company. Gardenwise, The Newsletter of the Singapore Botanic Gardens. 28:36
  16. ^ Salim AA, Garson MJ, Craik DJ (2004) New alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius. J Nat Prod 67(1):54–57.
  17. ^ Peungvicha P, Thirawarapan SS, Watanabe H (1996) Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of the root of Pandanus odorus Ridl. Biol Pharm Bull 19:364–366
  18. ^ Peungvicha P, Temsiririrkkul R, Prasain JK, Tezuka Y, Kadota S, Thirawarapan SS, Watanabe H (1998a) 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid: a hypoglycemic constituent of aqueous extract of Pandanus odorus root. J Ethnopharmacol 62:79–84.
  19. ^ Peungvicha P, Thirawarapan SS, Watanabe H (1998b) 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid: a hypoglycemic constituent of aqueous extract of Pandanus odorus root II. Jpn J Pharmacol 78:395–398.
  20. ^ Wyk BEV (2005) Food plants of the world: identification, culinary uses and nutritional value. Times Editions–Marshall Cavendish, Singapore, p 275
  21. ^ Simmons, Holley. "This tropical plant gives foods a nutty flavor — and surprising color". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  22. ^ "All You Need to Know About Pandan". Michelin Guide. Michelin. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.

Further reading

External links