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Location of Pabna in Bangladesh
|• Total||2,371.50 km2 (915.64 sq mi)|
|flood plain and marsh land|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
Pabna District (Bengali: পাবনা জেলা Pabna Zila) is a district in north-western Bangladesh. It is the southern most district of Rajshahi Division. Its administrative capital is eponymous Pabna town.
Archeologist Cunningham conjectured that the name Pabna might be derived from Pundra or Poondrobordhon civilisation, whose capital was Mahasthangarh, the oldest city of Bangladesh, in neighbouring Bogra. But this hypothesis has not received general acceptance among scholars.
In 1859–61 the district was one of the major areas involved in the Indigo revolt. Beginning in Yusufshahi period in 1873 the serfs resisted excessive demands of increased rents by feudal lords (zamindar), led by the nouveau riches Banerjees and Dwijendranath Tagore, by forming an Agrarian League. This largely peaceful movement found the support of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal George Campbell, who antagonised the absentee feudal lords. These protests are generally referred to as Pabna disturbances. In the following year the district was one of the worst hit by famine. The peasant's demands were finally partially met with the Rent Law Act of 1885.
In 1875, Raaygonj was transferred back to Pabna from Bogra, and in 1879, a separate judgeship for the districts of Pabna and Bogra was created. The History of Pabna was written by Advocate Chowdhury Mohammad Badruduzza.
Pabna forms the south-east boundary of Rajshahi Division. Sirajganj District is on the north-east, while the Padma River, main stream of the holy river Ganges, in the south separates it from Rajbari District and Kushtia District. The Jamuna River runs along its eastern border separating it from Manikgonj District; and on the north-west it has a common boundary with the Natore District. Average maximum temperature 36.8 °C, minimum 9.6 °C; annual rainfall 1872 mm. Characteristically the soil of the district is divided into four, viz flood plains of the Ganges, Karatoya, Jamuna and Barind Tract. Main rivers are Ganges, Ichamati, Gumani, Baral and Hurasagar.
|Climate data for Pabna|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.4
|Average low °C (°F)||9.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19
|Average relative humidity (%)||45||36||39||44||59||73||74||76||72||68||52||49||57.3|
|Source: National newspapers|
The district is intersected by rivers of varying magnitude. But in fact, the river system is constituted by the Padma and the Jamuna with their interlacing offshoots and tributaries. Besides these flowing streams, the interior is visited by the abandoned beds of old rivers, most of which are dry except in the rains.
The general trend of the drainage of the Serajganj subdivision is from north-west to south-east, the rivers entering it from the north-west flow into the Jamuna after a tortuous course. In the Sadar subdivision, however, the general slope of the country is from west to east, and the main rivers fall into Hurasagar, an offshoot of the Jamuna.
The following rivers flow through Pabna District:
Of the 2.1 million inhabitants, 51.17% are male. 90.12% are Muslims, 9.50% Hindu, 0.22% Christian and others 0.16%. There are 2353 mosques, 420 Hindu temples, and 11 Churches. There is no Buddhist pagoda in Pabna. Thakur Anukulchandra Aasrom (missionary) beside Mental Hospital, Pabna at Hemayetpur has the largest Hindu temple in Pabna.
Pakshey is a popular green area. The railway colony of Paksey, divisional headquarters of Bangladesh Railway, has many old trees, and is beside the river Padma and the Hardinge Bridge. An export processing zone (EPZ) and the newly built Lalon Shah Bridge are situated here.
Idyllic Poddar Par (the bank of the Padma) at Shilaaidoho Ghaat is 5 km south of town's old Technical Institute, where people can enjoy a river cruise. A river crossing (ghaat) here connects to Shilaaidoho of Kumarkhali Upazila of Kushtia District. Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore had a Koothibari (villa) at Shilaaidoho, where his birth anniversary is celebrated regularly.
Bangladesh mental Hospital, Pabna is a popular Hospital in Bangladesh beside Pabna main town. There is only one mental hospital in Bangladesh. Mental Patient from anywhere in Bangladesh goes there and get treatment.
There is a marshy area, Chalan Beel, in the north.
The district comprises nine upazilas:
There is a General Hospital and a Mental Hospital at Pabna. The eleven thanas of the district hold a Upazila health complex each. Each Upazila health complex has qualified doctors who got appointment through Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) commission. For better treatment people need to go to medical college and other tertiary hospitals in Rajshahi or Dhaka. There is a 250-bed government general hospital here and a 450-bed mental hospital, second oldest in Indian subcontinent, only after Ranchi Mental Hospital, Jharkhand, India. Recently government owned Pabna Medical College and Hospital has been set up. There are around 15 health clinics.
There are roads, waterways, railways and one airport. The traditional paalkee (sedans), tomtom (horse carriages) and gorur gaari (bullock carts) are now going out of the fashion. The Nosimon and Korimon, locally made mechanical hauler using irrigation pumps as main engine, are mainly used for transporting agricultural goods and rural folks. Inexpensive Chinese electric and petrol autobikes (tricycle) are getting popularity as urban transport. Dhaka is about five hours by road. Hardinge Bridge and Lalon Shah Bridge over the Padma linked Pabna with Kushtia District as well as Khulna Division and the southern Bangladesh. Before the Partition of India, it was a major stoppage for trains from Kolkata to Assam and Darjeeling.The Hardinge Bridge already passed a glorious and historical hundred years. Pabna is also connected to Dhaka by the age old roadway through the Jamuna River crossing at Nogorbari, opposite to the river crossing of Aricha at Manikgonj District. It is also very well communicated with Dhaka by modern roads through Jamuna Bridge. There is no rail link to Pabna town; nearby rail stations are situated in Chatmohar Upazila and Ishwardi Upazila. Ishwardi Upazila is one of the important railway junctions of the North Bengal as well as in Bangladesh. There are nine rail stations in this district: Ishwardi, Ishwardi Bypass, Pakshi, Muladuli, Chatmohar, Bhangura, Baral Bridge, Sharat Nagar, Dilpashar and Guakhara. Pabna is well connected by road, rail, river or air to the rest of the country.
There is an airport at Ishwardi Upazila. Biman Bangladesh Airlines used to operate twice- weekly services to Ishwardi from Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, Dhaka. However, no airlines is operating to and from Ishwardi at the moment.
Several Dhaka bound private bus services are available: Pabna Express, Shyamoli Parbahan, Shorkar Travels, Raja Badsha, Ishurdi Express, Shahjadpur Travels, Baadol, Night Star, Kings, Esha, Mohanogor, Capital Service, Sakal Shandha, Uttara, B Nagar, Al Hamra etc. Government owned Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) provides bus services to Rajshahi and Bogra cities. Water transport is important as the Padma and other rivers, and Chalan Beel are situated in Pabna. In Pabna district ride by Nosimon, rickshawvan and Korimon are pleasure worthy.
Average literacy is male 51.8% and female 31.5%. There is A renowned science and technology University named Pabna University of Science and Technology. There are 34 colleges, a cadet college, a law college, a government polytechnic institute, a government vocational training institute, a textiles college, a government commerce college, a teachers' training college, a primary teacher's training institute, a nursing training institute, a homoeopathic college, 202 high schools, 29 junior high schools, a Madrassa Aliya, 261 qaomi madrassa (seminary), 667 government primary schools, 445 non-government primary schools, 8 community schools, 29 kindergartens, 32 satellite schools, 299 NGO-operated schools, and a music college.Pabna Zilla School,Pabna Edward College and Banwarinagar C.B. Pilot High School this three Institution of this district is very old in these region.All these three institution has already passed a hundred glorious years.
Noted educational institutions are:
SchoolPabna Zilla (1853),SchoolPabna Collectrate public school and college (134530),
Locally published newspapers and periodicals:
9. " Opinion on Care Taker Government and relevant issues (2011), Statement Submitted to Appellate Division of Bangladesh Supreme Court;
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