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Outline of cryptography
outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:
(or Cryptography cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.
Essence of cryptography
Uses of cryptographic techniques
Branches of cryptography
History of cryptography
Modern symmetric-key algorithms
Feistel cipher – pattern by Horst Feistel
Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) – 128-bit block; NIST selection for the AES, FIPS 197; Created 2001—by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen; NESSIE selection; CRYPTREC recommendation.
Anubis – 128-bit block
BEAR – built from a stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
Blowfish – 64-bit block; by Bruce Schneier et al.
Camellia – 128-bit block; NESSIE selection (NTT & Mitsubishi Electric); CRYPTREC recommendation
CAST-128 ( CAST5) – 64-bit block; one of a series of algorithms by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, insistent that the name is not due to their initials
CAST-256 ( CAST6) – 128-bit block; the successor to CAST-128 and a candidate for the AES competition
CIPHERUNICORN-A – 128-bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
CIPHERUNICORN-E – 64-bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
CMEA – cipher used in US cellphones, found to have weaknesses.
CS-Cipher – 64-bit block
Data Encryption Standard (DES) – 64-bit block; FIPS 46-3, 1976
DEAL – an AES candidate derived from DES
DES-X – a variant of DES to increase the key size.
GDES – a DES variant designed to speed up encryption
Grand Cru – 128-bit block
Hierocrypt-3 – 128-bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
Hierocrypt-L1 – 64-bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
IDEA NXT – project name FOX, 64-bit and 128-bit block family; Mediacrypt (Switzerland); by Pascal Junod & Serge Vaudenay of Swiss Institute of Technology Lausanne
International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – 64-bit block; James Massey & X Lai of ETH Zurich
Iraqi Block Cipher (IBC)
KASUMI – 64-bit block; based on MISTY1, adopted for next generation W-CDMA cellular phone security
KHAZAD – 64-bit block designed by Barretto and Rijmen
Khufu and Khafre – 64-bit block ciphers
Kuznyechik – Russian 128-bit block cipher, defined in GOST R 34.12-2015 and RFC 7801.
LION – block cypher built from stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
LOKI89/91 – 64-bit block ciphers
LOKI97 – 128-bit block cipher, AES candidate
Lucifer – by Tuchman et al. of IBM, early 1970s; modified by NSA/ NBS and released as DES
MAGENTA – AES candidate
Mars – AES finalist, by Don Coppersmith et al.
MISTY1 – NESSIE selection 64-bit block; Mitsubishi Electric (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation (limited) MISTY2 – 128-bit block: Mitsubishi Electric (Japan)
Nimbus – 64-bit block
NOEKEON – 128-bit block
NUSH – variable block length (64-256-bit)
Q – 128-bit block
RC2 – 64-bit block, variable key length
SAFER – variable block length
SC2000 – 128-bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
Serpent – 128-bit block; AES finalist by Ross Anderson, Eli Biham, Lars Knudsen
SHACAL-1 – 160-bit block
SHACAL-2 – 256-bit block cypher; NESSIE selection Gemplus (France)
Shark – grandfather of Rijndael/ AES, by Daemen and Rijmen
TEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham
Triple DES – by Walter Tuchman, leader of the Lucifer design team—not all triple uses of DES increase security, Tuchman's does; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited), only when used as in FIPS Pub 46-3
Twofish – 128-bit block; AES finalist by Bruce Schneier et al.
XTEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham 3-Way – 96-bit block by Joan Daemen
Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers
Enigma – WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
Purple – highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
SIGABA – WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al. TypeX – WWII UK cypher machine
Hybrid code/cypher combinations
JN-25 – WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants Naval Cypher 3 – superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 1930s and into WWII
Modern asymmetric-key algorithms
Undeciphered historical codes and ciphers
Organizations and selection projects
Data Encryption Standard (DES) – NBS selection process, ended 1976 RIPE – division of the RACE project sponsored by the
European Union, ended mid-1980s
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – a "break-off" competition sponsored by NIST, ended in 2001
NESSIE Project – an evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union, ended in 2002
eSTREAM– program funded by ECRYPT; motivated by the failure of all of the stream ciphers submitted to NESSIE, ended in 2008
CRYPTREC – evaluation/recommendation program sponsored by the Japanese government; draft recommendations published 2003 CrypTool – an e-learning freeware programme in English and German— exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis
List of cryptographers
Academic and professional publications