Ottoman Egypt covers two main periods of the history of Egypt from the 16th through early 20th centuries, when under the rule of or allied to the Ottoman Empire that was based in (present day) Turkey.
The Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867) was established when the Egypt region came under the direct rule of the Ottoman Empire with their 1517 victory over the Mamluk Sultanate. The interruption of the Napoleon's French campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) allowed Muhammad Ali's seizure of power from Ottoman Hurshid Pasha, and the founding of the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
The Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Ali's self-appointed status as a viceroyalty or Khedive was officially acknowledged in 1867, though by then Egypt was subject to the influence of France and especially the United Kingdom, who completed the Suez Canal in 1869.