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Ottilien languages

Ottilien
Ramu Coast
Geographic
distribution
Yawar Rural LLG, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationRamu
Glottologwagg1235[1]

The Ottilien languages are a small family of clearly related languages,

WatamKaian, Gamei (Mbore), and BosmanAwar.

They are generally classified among the Ramu languages of northern Papua New Guinea.

The Ottilien languages are all spoken in Yawar Rural LLG, in locations mostly along the coast of Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.[2][3]

Watam and Bosman share plural morphology with Lower Sepik (Nor–Pondo), supporting the Ramu – Lower Sepik language-family proposal.

Pronouns

Pronouns in proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay (proto-Ottilien) reconstructed by Foley (2005) are:[4]

singular dual plural
1st person *aŋga *ai
2nd person *(n)oŋgo(a) *ne
3rd person *ma(n) *maniŋg *mi(n)

See also Lower Ramu languages#Pronouns.

Proto-Ottilien

A phonological reconstruction of proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay (proto-Ottilien) has been proposed by Foley (2005).[4]


proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay reconstructions (Foley 2005)
gloss proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay Watam Kaian Gamay Bosmun Awar
one *kaku kaku kaku kabe koku mbɨnə
two *mbuniŋ mbwoini mbuniŋ mbuniŋ mbuniŋ mbuni
three giramot giramaut mbonkak bonkak mbribin
person *namot namot namot ramot mot mot
woman/mother aem meak meak mes/mam məri/mam
father aes aes aet sate sat
water arum ŋarum puk mok mok
fire *s(u)ək sak sak tak suək suək
sun *ra(u) nau/ra ra ra lau rau
moon *kər(v)i ndoŋar kare karvɨi kərvi kəri
star gwi gwae gwi ɲjem pot
canoe *kor kor kor kor kor kor
house endau endau kak tomuŋ to
village n(a)oŋ noŋ auŋ wunis ŋuni
breast *mɨr mur mur mɨr mɨr mɨr
tooth *nda(r) ndakai ndakai ndar dar ndar
blood rumb yakaind rakaind nimbit rerik
bone *ɣar gagar gagar gagar ɣar ɣarɣar
tongue *mi(m) mi memraŋ mim eitap ɲjiekpun
ear *kwar kwar kwar kwar kur kur
eye *rəmeak namak rameak lamŋeak rəmak rəmaʔ
nose *ŋgum ŋgum ŋgum ŋgum ŋgum ŋgum
leg *or ? or or or or rue
hair mbunat sabrit yakwar twakarɨ dəmbar
egg yor yor lor nuok nuʔ
bird *ŋgwarak ŋgorak ŋgorak ŋgorak gwarak ŋgorak
leaf *(ra)par rapar rapar rapar par par
tree padoŋ paraŋ ik kən kən
yesterday *ɣur ŋur ŋaup ŋaur ɣur gur
tomorrow *ɣurap ? ŋarap ŋorap ŋorap vuarap gurap
oar *anup anup anup nup nuap nop
betelnut *mbok meɲjak mbok mbok mbok mbok
lime *awi(r) ai aipak avir verpak virwa
sago *veak wak weak veak ves vek
pig *rəkəm markum markum markəm rəkəm rəgəm
crocodile namkai nomgai mugmai ŋgome ŋgumi
snake *ndop mindop mindop nduop ndup kondok
name *ɣi wi wi i ji gi
mosquito *ŋgit naŋgit naŋgit ŋgit ɲjet ŋget
ground wakar wakar tiakar tesin terik
feces *yu/o yo yupak lo yuwur ɲjit
hear *varak warak warak warak vai vai
hit ruŋ pi pi ŋara ŋa
eat *amb amb amb amb mba mba
go *saŋg saŋg saŋg taŋg saŋg saŋg
come *kɨp rukup rukup kɨp kɨp kɨp
sit *mbirak mbirak mbirak mbirak berak mbirak
stand *-tik utik utik wɨtɨk tis tik
big nakan aneak aɲek ɣor vret
good *ya(o)ŋ yaoŋ yaoŋ laŋ yaŋ yandi
black *mbəkmbək mbukmbuk mbukmbuk mbəkmbək bəkbək mbəkmbək
hot wiwi wai ovai vɨvi gɨgɨr
cold gagau gagau gagau ɣiɣiat rivut


Below, proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay is listed in comparison with four other Ramu languages that are closely related to, but not part of, Watam-Awar-Gamay: the Misegian languages Kire and Mikarew, and the Tanggu languages Tangu and Igom.[4]


Proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay and Ramu comparisons (Foley 2005)
gloss proto-Watam-Awar-Gamay Kire Mikarew Tangu Igom
one *kaku ibabira aməra wunwan unuʔaka
two *mbuniŋ pʰunini poni munai mokupea
three pʰuni pomənimkasam munainwan mokupea unuʔa
person *namot guma guma wanik wuɣu
woman/mother mbik aim/ami məin məin
father ndia apisi yavai yap
water mbɨ cup niam niam
fire *s(u)ək vap ariv ruwuv/rogup lugu
sun *ra(u) ra are gar ŋgar
moon *kər(v)i kəniŋ ekini mənam mənam
star kam mukope riyɨndɨk likian
canoe *kor kem agiam
house vun/pen tɨpeŋ taŋ taŋ
village ŋgu uŋip məŋ miaŋ
breast *mɨr ta ote ŋgyuav gii
tooth *nda(r) thar atarim andar dər
blood vusun wusi irien məy
bone *ɣar xar aɣar ɣavaŋ ɣavaŋ
tongue *mi(m) ze mɨzm mamiakɨ mimiaŋ
ear *kwar kwar kwar wukwar ɣukwar
eye *rəmeak rumaʔ tama raik raik
nose *ŋgum kwom winiba munwam eɲjia
leg *or ? ruu sue miɲaŋ mbwan
hair rugun tapanari ɣasia/ŋgasia rɨgesn
egg rer aror mɨnduapen warɨan
bird *ŋgwarak kworak kwara ŋgwarak ŋgwarak
leaf *(ra)par far tafarim rapar pat
tree kʰa tep gək ɣək
yesterday *ɣur gurmun pɨkɨm ruar mugisi
tomorrow *ɣurap ? gurmun kuromu wumasan mom
oar *anup (n)dab iŋgap
betelnut *mbok puk mis miak miak
lime *awi(r) rwi iwim uwuren uɣum
sago *veak vik wisim giav/ŋiav yaŋgia
pig *rəkəm dam ta ram ram
crocodile kum koa viari laisaŋ
snake *ndop kuruk kuru kyuok kiak
name *ɣi zin izi rigiav rigiaŋ
mosquito *ŋgit ket ci ŋgwan gwan
ground nwiaʔan ŋwas nduv ʃa
feces *yu/o vi(r) buarim gavig miɲaŋ
hear *varak mbara? orak vara/bara mwiari
hit soʔ sos ŋak mənaramu
eat *amb mbɨ tama ɣam/mi kam
go *saŋg vu/ŋgu usi maŋ/wugi gi
come *kɨp si/sa iɣ/giji karigi
sit *mbirak peraʔ apria ipi/pindi pwiaŋge
stand *-tik tʰək cu ɣambi/ləmbe rambia
big bakume aruʔa ruma/arum arum
good *ya(o)ŋ vuŋ aŋwi swari/ara yara
black *mbəkmbək pək pək ŋes/nəs ŋiatʃ
hot qurgur fei uŋtiki varip

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ottilien". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Papua New Guinea languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas: SIL International.
  3. ^ United Nations in Papua New Guinea (2018). "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9.
  4. ^ a b c Foley, William A. (2005). "Linguistic prehistory in the Sepik-Ramu basin". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 109–144. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.