|Norwegian Citizenship Act|
|Parliament of Norway|
|Enacted by||Government of Norway|
|Status: Current legislation|
Norwegian nationality law is based on the principle of jus sanguinis. In general, Norwegian citizenship is conferred by birth to a Norwegian parent, or by naturalisation in Norway.
Norway restricts, but does not absolutely prohibit, dual citizenship.
Regardless of the place of birth, a child acquires Norwegian citizenship at birth if either parent is a Norwegian citizen. Originally, citizenship was only passed on to the children of Norwegian mothers, as they were the only provable parents, but over time a presumption of paternal parentage created citizenship for the child, and eventually even excluded the maternal jus sanguinis. In more recent times, as of 1 January 1979, mothers' rights to automatically pass on their Norwegian citizenship has been reestablished. The requirement that the mother and father be married to one another was abolished on 1 September 2006.
Generally, it is possible to naturalise as a Norwegian citizen after residing in Norway seven years over the last ten years, if the applicant qualifies for permanent residence and does not have a criminal record.
From 1 September 2008 an applicant for Norwegian citizenship must also give evidence of proficiency in either the Norwegian or the Sami language, or give proof of having attended classes in Norwegian for 300 hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in Norway (i.e., demonstrate proficiency in one of the Scandinavian languages). From 1 March 2014 an applicant for Norwegian citizenship must also pass an exam about Norwegian society, laws and history.
A naturalised Norwegian citizen is generally expected to prove they have lost or renounced any former citizenship(s).
Norwegian citizenship may be acquired by notification to the Directorate of Immigration. This is a simplified form of naturalisation exempted from application fees.
As with naturalisation, a person becoming Norwegian by notification must normally renounce any other citizenship held, unless exempted.
The following categories of persons are eligible for citizenship by notification
As from 1 September 2006 a child under 18 adopted by Norwegian citizens acquires Norwegian citizenship automatically. In cases where children are adopted outside Norway, the consent of the Norwegian government is required.
Foreigners who have acquired Norwegian citizenship may lose it if they are found to have lied about their origins, such was the case of about 100 Somalis who along with their children born in Norway lost their citizenship and right of residence after it turned out they were from neighbouring countries. This is considered an affront to Norwegian society which is built on trust.
A Norwegian citizen who voluntarily acquires another citizenship automatically loses Norwegian citizenship without notification. This applies even if the foreign citizenship is acquired by registration through jus sanguinis instead of naturalization, and regardless of the person's age or current residence.
This clause has created difficulties for children who are born to an Australian parent and a Norwegian parent outside Australia, because Australian nationality law explicitly states that a child born outside Australia does not automatically acquire Australian citizenship at birth, instead the Australian parent must voluntarily register the child's birth to Australian missions abroad in order to confer Australian citizenship to the child. In this case, Norwegian citizenship is automatically lost when the Australian parent registered the child's birth to Australian authorities. This applies even when the child was born on Norwegian soil, and also applies when the other parent is a citizen of a country with a similar nationality law to Australia's, e.g. New Zealand.
However, Australian nationality law also dictates that the child automatically acquires Australian citizenship when the child is born inside Australian territory and has at least one parent who was an Australian citizen or permanent resident at the time of birth. In this case, the Norwegian citizenship is not lost because Australian citizenship is conferred on birth. Also, Norwegian citizenship is not considered lost when a child was born to a Norwegian parent and a parent with a foreign citizenship whose country explicitly states that the child acquires that country's citizenship automatically upon birth, e.g. Italy, therefore the parents can notify the other country's authorities about the birth without the risk of losing the child's Norwegian citizenship.
Norwegian citizens who acquire citizenship by birth but have resided less than 2 years in Norway or 7 years in Nordic Council countries must apply to retain Norwegian citizenship before turning 22 years of age. Applicants are not required to renounce other citizenships, but are required to demonstrate "adequate ties" to Norway. Often, frequent travel to Norway or a year of study in Norway are accepted.
When one naturalises as a citizen of Norway, it is required as a principal rule that they renounce any other citizenship. The only exceptions to this rule is:
Dual citizenship is soon to be allowed in Norway, following approved changes by the Norwegian Parliament. The new rules will be introduced on 1 January 2020. 
As of 1 January 2018, Norwegian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 173 countries and territories, ranking the Norwegian passport 3rd in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley visa restrictions index.