|Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor|
|Synonyms||adrenergic reuptake inhibitor|
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine and therefore can increase in adrenergic neurotransmission.
NRIs are commonly used in the treatment of conditions like ADHD and narcolepsy due to their psychostimulant effects and in obesity due to their appetite suppressant effects. They are also frequently used as antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety and panic disorder. Additionally, many drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methylphenidate possess NRI activity, though it is important to mention that NRIs without combined dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) properties are not significantly rewarding and hence are considered to have a negligible abuse potential. However, norepinephrine has been implicated as acting synergistically with dopamine when actions on the two neurotransmitters are combined (e.g., in the case of NDRIs) to produce rewarding effects in psychostimulant drugs of abuse.
A meta analysis published in BMJ in 2011 concluded that the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine is indistinguishable from placebo in the treatment of depression. A second review by the European Medicines Agency concluded that reboxetine was significantly more effective than placebo, and that its risk/benefit ratio was positive. The latter review, also examined the efficacy of reboxetine as a function of baseline depression, and concluded that it was effective in severe depression and panic disorder but did not show effects significantly superior to placebo in mild depression.
A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA).
Many NRIs exist, including the following:
Note: Only NRIs selective for the NET greater than the other two monoamine transporters (MATs) are listed here. For a list of NRIs that act at multiple MATs, see the other monoamine reuptake inhibitor pages such as NDRI, SNRI, and SNDRI.