Bicalutamide (Casodex): Marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer and also used in the treatment of hirsutism in women, as a component of hormone therapy for transgender women, to delay precocious puberty in boys, to prevent or alleviate priapism, and for other indications. It has also been studied in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. By far the most widely used NSAA, due to its favorable profile of efficacy, tolerability, and safety.
Apalutamide (Erleada): Marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer. Very similar to enzalutamide, but with reduced central nervous system distribution and hence is expected to have a reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects.
Darolutamide (Nubeqa): Marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer. Structurally distinct from enzalutamide, apalutamide, and other NSAAs. Relative to enzalutamide and apalutamide, shows greater efficacy as an AR antagonist, improved activity against mutated AR variants in prostate cancer, little or no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and little or no central nervous system distribution. However, has a much shorter terminal half-life and lower potency.
Proxalutamide (GT-0918): A second-generation NSAA. It is under development for the treatment of prostate cancer. Similar to enzalutamide and apalutamide, but with increased efficacy as an AR antagonist, little or no central nervous system distribution, and no induction of seizures in animals.
Seviteronel (VT-464) is a nonsteroidal androgen biosynthesis inhibitor which is under development for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Cioteronel (CPC-10997; Cyoctol, Ethocyn, X-Andron): A structurally unique first-generation NSAA. It was under development as an oral medication for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and as a topical medication for the treatment of acne and pattern hair loss. It reached phase II and phase IIIclinical trials for these indications prior to discontinuation due to insufficient effectiveness.
Inocoterone acetate (RU-38882, RU-882): A steroid-like NSAA. It was under development as a topical medication for the treatment of acne but was discontinued due to insufficient effectiveness in clinical trials.
RU-58841 (PSK-3841, HMR-3841): A first-generation NSAA related to nilutamide. It was under development as a topical medication for the treatment of acne and pattern hair loss but its development was discontinued during phase I clinical trials.
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